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  • Haiti

    Once a Spanish, and later a French, colony, this Caribbean island was established as a resource for raw materials including cocoa, coffee, cotton and sugarcane, which were cultivated by the labor of African slaves. Haitian insurgents successfully revolted and won independence in 1804. The country is located on the island of Hispaniola, which it shares with the Dominican Republic.
  • Hampton University

    Private, coeducational historically black university founded in 1868 and located in southeastern Virginia. It is home to the oldest African American history museum in the United States.
  • Hampton, Lionel

    Jazz vibraphonist, pianist, and bandleader. Hampton began his career as a percussionist before being introduced to the vibraphone in 1930 by Louis Armstrong. In 1936, he was invited to join Benny Goodman, who along with pianist Teddy Wilson and drummer Gene Krupa, formed the first racially integrated jazz group. Known primarily as a swing jazz performer, he also worked with a wide variety of musicians including Quincy Jones, Wes Montgomery, Fats Navarro and Clark Terry.
  • Harlem

    Storied African American neighborhood in New York City. Originally a rural area of New York, Harlem experienced an influx of wealth and rapid development in the 1870s, when three elevated train lines were added to service the neighborhood. During the late 19th century, much of Harlem’s housing stock was built to attract the city’s well to do. When the real estate market crashed in 1904, black real estate developer Philip Payton began converting the neighborhood into a haven for the city’s black middle class. During the 1920s, Harlem was home to a thriving African American cultural scene, dubbed the Harlem Renaissance.
  • Harlem Globetrotters

    Exhibition basketball team founded in Chicago in 1926 by Abe Saperstein. The team was named America's Ambassadors of Goodwill by President Gerald Ford and inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2002.
  • Harlem on My Mind

    1969 exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art that sparked controversy for its non-inclusion of works by African American artists.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Cultural and social moment that spanned from the 1920s to the mid-1930s and was centered in New York City's Harlem neighborhood. Luminaries of the period include Zora Neale Hurston, Alain Locke, and Langston Hughes.
  • Harris, Patricia Roberts

    First African American woman to serve as an ambassador, head a law school. and hold a cabinet position. In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed her ambassador to Luxembourg. After holding the position for two years, she returned to the United States and became dean of the Howard University School of Law. In 1977, President Jimmy Carter named her secretary of housing and urban development.
  • Harvard University

    Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University is the oldest institution of higher education in the United States. Eight U.S. presidents graduated from Harvard. Other notable alumni include Bill Gates, Elena Kagan, and Mark Zuckerberg.
  • Hayes, Helen

    Theatre, television, radio, and film actress. Hayes was one of twelve people to win an Emmy, Grammy, Oscar and Tony (EGOT) in her career. She also received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the National Medal of Arts. Her major film credits include The Sin of Madelon Claudet and Airport and her theater credits include Victoria Regina and Mary Rose.
  • Hines, Gregory

    Stage and screen actor, dancer and singer. Born in 1946, Hines began dancing with his older brother, Maurice Hines, Jr., and father, Maurice Hines, Sr., at a young age. Hines made his Broadway debut in 1954's The Girl in Pink Tights and went on to perform in plays such as Eubie! and Sophisticated Ladies. Hines won a Tony Award for his performance in Jelly’s Last Jam. Hines’ film credits include Tap, Waiting to Exhale and The Cotton Club.
  • Holiday, Billie

    Singer known as Lady Day. Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Holiday started her career in small Harlem nightclubs before touring with Count Basie and Artie Shaw. After going solo, Holiday recorded more than two hundred songs and never received royalties for them. She passed away at the age of forty-four.
  • Horne, Lena

    Singer, dancer, actress, and civil rights activist. Born in 1917, Horne began performing in the chorus at Harlem's famed Cotton Club at age sixteen. Metro Goldwyn Mayer signed Horne as a studio actress in 1942. Her notable films include Stormy Weather, Cabin in the Sky, and The Wiz.
  • Houston, Charles Hamilton

    Lawyer and law school dean. In 1935, Houston was recruited to form the legal department of the NAACP. He is remembered for training a generation of African American civil rights lawyers and for playing a significant role in dismantling Jim Crow laws.
  • Howard University

    Historically black university established in 1867 in Washington, D.C. Notable alumni include Patricia Roberts Harris, Thurgood Marshall, Mike Espy, and Debbie Allen.
  • Hughes, Langston

    Writer and social activist. Born in 1901, Hughes made his career in New York City during the Harlem Renaissance. Hughes was often published in The Crisis, the official NAACP magazine. His most well known work is the poem, The Negro Speaks of Rivers.
  • Hull House

    Social service organization founded by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr in 1889. Located in Chicago, Illinois, the organization offered services to underserved children and their families, many of whom were recent immigrants to the United States.
  • Hurston, Zora Neale

    Folklorist and author, Hurston participated in the Harlem Renaissance with other literary giants such as Langston Hughes. Her most famous work is Their Eyes Were Watching God. Other works include Mules and Men; Moses, Man of the Mountain; and Barracoon.