Fusce malesuada, leo eu malesuada rhoncus, est lacus accumsan justo; et ornare est lorem et justo. Nam dignissim purus non eros faucibus fermentum? Ut et diam nisi. Aliquam justo velit, accumsan et placerat et, commodo nec dolor. Etiam erat turpis, gravida vel dapibus a, feugiat a nisi. In volutpat.

Fusce malesuada, leo eu malesuada rhoncus, est lacus accumsan justo; et ornare est lorem et justo.

Click one of the letters above to advance the page to terms beginning with that letter.


100 Black Men search for term
National organization with more than a dozen local chapters. Founded in 1963 in New York City by prominent black leaders (including David Dinkins), the organization provides training and support to young black men in hopes of empowering them and helping them to overcome financial and social obstacles.


40 Acres and A Mule Filmworks search for term
Spike Lee's film and television production company. Some of the company's productions include "Do The Right Thing", "Love & Basketball", "The Best Man", "Jungle Fever", "Get On The Bus", and "The Original Kings of Comedy".


Aaron, Hank search for term
Hall-of-Fame baseball player, most famous for breaking Babe Ruth’s long-time record for career home runs. Aside from his 755 career home runs (which remains the record to this day) Aaron also amassed over 3,000 hits and holds the record for most career RBI’s with 2,297. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1982. Today, he is an executive with the Atlanta Braves baseball team.
Adderley,Cannonball search for term
Alto saxophonist and jazz musician. For 16 years he was the leader of the Cannonball Adderley Quintet, with such hits as “This Here”, the group came to embody the sub genre known as soul jazz. Witty and charismatic, Cannonball’s personality was nearly as well known as his music.
Affirmative Action search for term
Policies first enacted under President Lyndon Johnson’s administration to remedy the effects of widespread discrimination against marginalized groups in the United States. Affirmative action programs were designed to increase opportunities for minorities and women in employment, education and business ownership.
AFRI-COBRA search for term
An acronym for African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists, this organization was founded in 1968 by a groups of artists in Chicago. The group utilized Black Art as a medium to promote political and functional growth of Africanized thought throughout the world, taught classes and spoke out against apartheid in South Africa.
African Methodist Episcopal Church search for term
Founded in 1816 by Richard Allen, Daniel Payne, William Paul Quinn and Henry Turner, the African Methodist Episcopal Church (A.M.E. Church), is the result of segregation within churches in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After seeing that Methodist and Episcopalian alike were being subjected to humiliation and segregation at their holiest of places, the Free African Society was founded. From this group, five churches joined together to form the fledgeling A.M.E. Church on April 9, 1816. Today, the church has congregations across the United States, in Canada, the Caribbean, in several African nations and the United Kingdom.
Africanist search for term
A specialist in African affairs, cultures, or languages.
Afro-Academic Cultural Technological and Scientific Olympics search for term
Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) is an outreach program founded in 1978 by commentator, journalist and NAACP activist Vernon Jarrett. The ACT-SO program promotes educational excellence by encouraging African American high school students to participate in academic competitions for scholarships, awards, and other prizes.
Afro-American Newspaper search for term
Founded in 1892 by former slave John H. Murphy, Sr. after merging his church publication, The Sunday School Helper with two other church publications, The Ledger (owned by George F. Bragg of Baltimore's St. James Episcopal Church) and The Afro-American (published by Reverend William M. Alexander, pastor of Baltimore's Sharon Baptist Church). By 1922, the Afro was the most widely circulated black newspaper on the East Coast. Murphy's son Carl Murphy took over the paper and served as editor for forty-five years until his death, when daughter Frances Murphy II took over. Today, fourth generation Murphy family members Jake Oliver and Frances Murphy Draper are actively involved in the paper.
AIDS search for term
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The disease that results from the sexually transmitted disease, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). A serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles.
Alabama search for term
Accepted into the United States in 1814 as the 22nd state. Alabama lies in the Southeastern part of the country bordered by Tennessee to the north, Mississippi and Georgia to the west and east respectively, and Florida to the south. The state has been the site of many important historical events, particularly in African American history. In the 19th century, the state’s capital, Montgomery, became the first capital of the Confederacy. In the 20th century Alabama was one of the major Civil Rights battlegrounds. It was the site of the Montgomery bus boycott, led by Dr. Martin Luther King, the Selma-Montgomery March, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee’s Freedom Rides.
Ali, Muhammad search for term
Boxer considered to be the best in the world, Ali was born Cassius Clay and changed his name following his conversion to Islam in 1964. During his career, he won Olympic gold and was a three-time heavyweight champion of the world. He was also convicted of dodging the draft during the Vietam War, a conviction the United States Supreme Court later overturned on the grounds of his status as a minister for the Nation of Islam. During his career, Ali won fifty-six fights, thirty-seven of which were by knockout. His travels and vibrant personality have made him a goodwill ambassador for the United States.
American Culinary Federation, Inc. search for term
North American professional chef organization with more than 240 chapters nationwide and 19,000 members. The organization's mission statement is to make a positive difference for culinarians through education, apprenticeship and certification, while creating a fraternal bond of respect and integrity among culinarians everywhere.
America’s Black Forum search for term
Nationally syndicated news/interview show. For 20 years, the weekly program has been discussing topics of special interest to African Americans.
Anderson, Marian search for term
The first African American to perform with the prestigious Metropolitan Opera, famed vocalist Marian Anderson was hailed as the greatest contralto of her time. Anderson's extraordinary career spanned the years from the early 1920s through the 1970s. She became a symbol of progress early in the civil rights era when the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to allow Anderson to perform at Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from the DAR in protest and arranged for Anderson to sing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. Over 75,000 people attended. Recipient of numerous awards, Anderson was bestowed the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963. She died in 1993 at the age of ninety-one.
Angelou, Maya search for term
Author, poet, actor, and film director Maya Angelou is hailed as one of the great voices of contemporary literature. She has published ten best selling books and numerous essays, earning her Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award nominations. At the request of President Clinton, Angelou wrote and delivered the poem "On The Pulse of Morning" at his 1993 presidential inauguration. Her screenplay Georgia was the first by an African American woman to be filmed.
Apollo Theater search for term
Famed club in the heart of New York City, the Apollo has launched the careers of legendary artists like Ella Fitzgerald, James Brown, Michael Jackson, D'Angelo and Lauryn Hill during its famed "Amateur Nights." The club is now a federal, state and city landmark, and produces a weekly television show, Showtime at the Apollo.
Argonne National Laboratory search for term
The U.S. Department of Energy's largest research centers. It is also the nation's first national laboratory, chartered in 1946. Argonne is a direct descendant of the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory, part of the World War Two Manhattan Project. It was at the Met Lab where, on December 2, 1942, Enrico Fermi and his band of about fifty colleagues created the world's first controlled nuclear chain reaction in a squash court at the University of Chicago. After the war, Argonne was given the mission of developing nuclear reactors for peaceful purposes. Over the years, Argonne's research expanded to include many other areas of science, engineering and technology. Today, Argonne operates on two campuses, one outside of Chicago, the other in Idaho, where most of the current nuclear research is performed.
Ariel Capital Management Corporation search for term
Founded in 1983 by John Rogers, Jr., the son of Jewel Lafontant MANkarious and Judge John Rogers, Ariel Capital is the largest fund management company owned by an African American. With over $2.2 billion in assets, Ariel Capital Management is regularly featured in the Wall Street Journal and Fortune Magazine as a paragon of African American entrepreneurship.
Arkansas search for term
The twenty-fifth state to join the Union, Arkansas was accepted as a state in 1836. It will secede from the Union in 1861 to join the Confederate cause. It was readmitted to the Union in 1868. Former President Bill Clinton hailed from this state.
Armstrong, Louis search for term
Born in a poor New Orleans neighborhood in 1901, Louis Armstrong, otherwise known as "Satchmo," was known world-wide for his skills as a jazz trumpeter and singer. Armstrong would also perform in films throughout his career and was an extensive writer. His career took him around the globe as a performer, performing to sold out audiences wherever he would play. He passed away in 1971.
Ashe, Arthur search for term
Tennis player and writer Arthur Ashe was born in Richmond, Virginia in 1943. A world-class player, Ashe was the first African American ever to win the US championship (1968), the Davis Cup (1968 - 1970), the Australian Open (1970), and Wimbledon (1975). Also a passionate civil rights activist, in 1973 Arthur Ashe became the first African American professional tennis player to play during the South African apartheid regime. His presence there helped call international attention to that human rights injustice. He retired from competition in 1979 and wrote a three-volume history of African American athletes entitled A Hard Road to Glory, published in 1988. Ashe passed away in 1993.
Associated Negro Press search for term
Established in 1919 by entrepreneur and journalist Claude Barnett, the Associated Negro Press was a consolidated news service that provided international news items and press releases to African American newspapers throughout the United States.
Atlanta, Georgia search for term
Capital city of Georgia and the fastest growing metropolitan area in the entire U.S. Atlanta was founded in 1837, and though it thrived initially it was nearly destroyed by Union General Sherman, during the infamous “Sherman’s March.” It is the birthplace of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and has long been a locus for African American culture. Today, the city has a population of over 400,000 and is home to several major American corporations including Coca-Cola and CNN.
Attorney General search for term
The chief government lawyer (at either the state or federal level). The Attorney General is responsible for the activities of all state and district attorneys, and oversees all cases—criminal and civil—brought by the government.


Baker, Josephine search for term
Overcoming the limitations imposed by the color of her skin, Josephine Baker became one of the world's most versatile entertainers, performing on stage, screeen and recordings. Josephine was decorated for her undercover work for the French Resistance during World War II and later worked as a civil rights activist. Her performance in the Folies Bergere in Paris, France, is considered to represent the epitome of the flamboyance of the Jazz Age. She also refused to perform for segregated audiences and integrated the Las Vegas nightclubs. During the course of her life, she adopted twelve children from around the world whom she called her "Rainbow Tribe." She passed away in 1975.
Baldwin, James search for term
Born in 1924, Balwin catapulted to fame with the publication of his first novel, Go Tell It On the Mountain. Over the years, he continued to write, including collections of essays entitled Notes of a Native Son and Nobody Knows My Name. He also wrote the novels Giovanni's Room and Another Country. Throughout his life he continued to write, and his works included productions for the stage and poetry. He died in his home in France in 1987.
Bangladesh search for term
Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development. Many of the citizens of this poor country are landless and forced to cultivate the flood-prone lands.
Baraka, Amiri search for term
Writer and activist Amiri Baraka was born LeRoi Jones in Newark, New Jersey in 1934. Jones' early career began in New York City’s Greenwich Village, where he published a collection of poems and edited several literary journals. He achieved international acclaim for his two dramas Dutchman, winner of the coveted Obie Award, and The Slave. He became a Muslim and changed his name in 1967 to Imamu Amiri Baraka and continues to publish short stories, poetry, and essays.
Barbados search for term
When first settled by the British in 1627, the island of Barbados was uninhabited. The British brought in slaves to work sugar plantations, which continued until slavery was abolished in 1834. The economy remained heavily dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the 20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in economic importance.
Barnett, Claude search for term
A prominent African American journalist and entrepreneur, Claude Barnett established the Associated Negro Press in 1919. Under the direction of Barnett, the ANP became the largest black press service in the United States for over 40 years. Barnett also served as special assistant to the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, was a board member of the Tuskegee Institute, American National Red Cross, and Provident Hospital. He died in 1967.
Belgium search for term
Situated on the North Sea between France and the Netherlands, Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 and was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU.
Bell, Cool Papa search for term
Called “the fastest man to ever play the game of baseball,” Cool Papa Bell was one of the stars of the Negro Baseball League during the 1930s and 1940s. Bell batted an astonishing .341 during his 25 years in the Negro Leagues, and once stole 175 bases in less than 200 games. His speed was legendary, and it was said that he could turn off the light and get into bed before the room got dark. He was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1974.
Bethune, Mary McLeod search for term
Born to former slaves in 1875, Bethune went on to found the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute for Negro Girls (now Bethune-Cookman College) in 1904, and served as president from 1904-1942 and from 1946-47. She was a leader in the black women's club movement and served as president of the National Association of Colored Women. She also served as a delegate and advisor to national conferences on education, child welfare, and home ownership, and was director of Negro Affairs in the the National Youth Adminstration from 1936 to 1944. Bethune served as consultant to the U.S. Secretary of War for selection of the first female officer candidates. President Truman appointed her to be a consultant on interracial affairs and understanding at the charter conference of the United Nations, as well. She also founded the National Council of Negro Women and was the vice-president of the NAACP. Her work also merited her many awards, both nationally and internationally. She passed away in 1955.
Better Boys Foundation search for term
Chicago-based non profit social service organization.
Billboard Magazine search for term
Music-industry trade publication, the journal’s most famous feature is the Billboard Chart, which tracks which singles received the most radio airplay for a given week.
Birmingham, Alabama search for term
City in Alabama founded in 1871 at the crossing of two railroad lines. In the 1960s Birmingham was the site of some of the fiercest civil rights battles in the United States. Birmingham gained worldwide attention in May 1963, when images of Civil Rights protesters attacked by dogs and sprayed by fire hoses were featured in the nation’s newspapers. In the fall of the same year, a bomb exploded in 16th Street Baptist Church killing four black girls. Dr. Martin Luther King composed his famous “Letter From a Birmingham Jail” in one of the city’s holding cells.
Black Arts Movement search for term
During the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, a loose coalition of African American intellectuals who produced politically and artistically radical poems aimed at raising awareness of black rights and promoting the struggle for racial equality. The lasting influence of the Black Arts Movement is found in institutions, such as African American Studies departments (and the field of African American Studies itself) as well as African American-oriented publishers, academic book series, art galleries, and theaters, which would not have existed without the explosion of African American nationalist artistic activity during this time.
Black Belt search for term
An area of Chicago that ran from 12th Street south to 39th Street, centered around State Street, a major north-south thoroughfair. As the African American community grew, the "Black Belt" expanded to the south and east. The area is now known as Bronzeville.
Black Enterprise Magazine search for term
First published in 1970 by African American publisher Earl Graves, the monthly Black Enterprise Magazine has since become a primary source of information on the African American business community as well as a forum for profiles of successful entrepreneurs.
Black Entertainment Television search for term
The nation’s first black-owned cable channel, started in 1980 by entrepreneur Robert L. Johnson. In the past several years, BET has become a multimedia conglomerate. Viacom purchased BET in 2000.
Black Panther Party search for term
Founded in Oakland, California in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, the Black Panther Party was a progressive political organization. The Panthers focused on ending police brutality, providing better education, ensuring equal protection under the law and fair housing in African American communities. Once comprised of over 5,000 members, unrelenting pressure from the FBI and internal struggles eroded the organization's power by the end of the 1970s.
Blues search for term
Distinctly American musical genre, the folk musical style originated among African Americans in the rural South at the end of the 19th century. Due to its simplicity and flexibility, blues music has served as the foundation for nearly every new Western musical genre of the 20th century, including jazz, rock and popular music. A standard blues progression is played in a major scale and moves between the first, fourth and fifth chords of the scale. Often the lyrics refer to hardship and despair, but ultimately the purpose of the blues is cathartic: one plays the blues to rid oneself of the blues.
Bond, Horace Mann search for term
A notable black educator and scholar in the early and mid 20th century. Horace Mann Bond was president of Lincoln University, the first president of Fort Valley State College, and the father of future NAACP president Julian Bond.
Botswana search for term
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Botswana has the world's highest known rate of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
Boycott search for term
A group’s refusal to engage in commercial dealings with an organization in protest of their policies. Boycotts were used extensively during the Civil Rights Movement by African Americans seeking to challenge Jim Crow and other segregation laws.
Boys and Girls Club of Chicago search for term
A one-hundred-year-old social service agency, with service sites in many of Chicago’s most blighted communities. The agency offers services such as day care, tutoring and after-school programming to children living in underserved neighborhoods.
Bradley,Tom search for term
First African American Mayor of the City of Los Angeles, he served five terms. Bradley is best known for forging lasting coalitions across racial and ethnic lines.
Brazil search for term
Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil has overcome more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, Brazil is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader. Prior to the outlawing of slavery there, Brazil was the largest importer of African slaves in the Western Hemisphere.
brigadier general search for term
The lowest rank of general officer in the United States (sometimes known as a one-star general from the United States insignia) and other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General.
Bronzeville search for term
A largely African American area of Chicago, Illinois, Bronzeville was the cultural and economic center of the black community during the segregation era. Similar to New York’s Harlem district, Bronzeville was nationally known during the postwar years for the "Stroll", an urban strip bustling with jazz cabarets and blues clubs that featuring artists such as Muddy Waters and Jelly Roll Morton.
Brooks, Gwendolyn search for term
Poet and writer Gwendolyn Brooks was the first African American woman to win the Pulitzer Prize. Her many publications include Selected Poems (1963), In the Mecca (1968), Family Pictures (1970), and Children Coming Home (1992). In 1968, Brooks succeeded Carl Sandburg as poet laureate of Illinois. She died December 3, 2000.
Brown v. Board of Education search for term
Landmark Supreme Court case decision, handed down on May 14, 1954, which abolished the practice of "separate but equal" facilities which had been held up by the Plessy v. Ferguson decision in 1896.
Brown, Ron search for term
Army veteran, lawyer and the highest-ranking African American in President Clinton’s cabinet, Ronald Brown served with the US Army (1962-6) before earning a law degree at St. John's University (1970). While working for the New York chapter of the National Urban League (NUL), he was elected to the post of District Leader for the Democratic Party and then as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee. President Clinton appointed Brown to the office of Secretary of Commerce in 1993. Three years later he was killed in an airplane crash on a trade mission in Croatia.
Buffalo Soldiers search for term
The United States Army's 92nd Infantry Division. The 92nd was the only African-American infantry division to see combat in Europe in World War II. Nicknamed "Buffalo Soldiers," the 92nd, which had fought in France during World War I, was once again activated in 1942. More than 909,000 African Americans were selected for duty in the racially segregated U.S. Army during World War II. The vast majority of African Americans in uniform were assigned to segregated construction or supply units or placed in units that performed unpleasant duties such as graves registration. The 92nd continued a long and proud tradition by retaining the buffalo as its divisional symbol. Its circular shoulder patch, which featured a black buffalo on an olive drab background, was called The Buffalo--as was the division’s official publication. The 92nd even kept a live buffalo as a mascot.
Burrell Communication Group search for term
The nation’s largest African American-owned marketing firm. Founded by Tom Burrell, the firm boasts such clients as McDonalds and CocaCola. Burrell Communications Group is divided into three divisions: Burrell Advertising, Burrell Public Relations, and Burrell Consumer Promotions.
Bush, George H. W. search for term
The 41st President of the United States. George H.W. Bush served from 1989 to 1993, and during his presidency the Cold War finally came to an end. Despite military victories in Panama and the Persian Gulf, a falling economy hurt his presidency, and he was ousted after one term.
Bush, George W. search for term
The 43rd President of the United States. Son of George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush was elected in 2000.


California search for term
The thirty-first state to join the Union, California became a state in 1850. This followed a major population boost as a result of the discovery of gold in 1849. The state sided with the Union in the Civil War. Today the state is home to the American film industry, centered in Hollywood. Former President Richard Nixon was born there and President Ronald Reagan served as governor of the state.
Calloway, Cab search for term
Also known as the “Hi De Ho Man,” Cab Calloway was born in Rochester, New York in 1907. A versatile song and dance man, Calloway became a headline performer and bandleader at the prestigious Cotton Club following his starring role in the Broadway show Connie’s Hot Chocolates. A million-selling recording artist, Calloway's singing, dancing and flamboyant style made him one of the most famous entertainers during the Swing Era. He continued performing up until his death in 1994 at the age of 88.
Canada search for term
A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the longest undefended border in the world. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.
Caribbean search for term
Region just east of the Gulf of Mexico and south of the United States. Within the Caribbean Sea there are nearly two-dozen countries. The Caribbean was the first place visited by Christopher Columbus, who first landed on an island in the present-day Bahamas. In the following century, the Caribbean islands quickly became key sites of colonial conquest. European colonial powers enslaved local indigenous populations and also brought hundreds of thousands of African slaves to the region, forcing them to work on sugar and coffee plantations. While many Caribbean islands have since achieved independence, many remain colonial territories, governed from afar by the Americans, British, Dutch and French.
Carmichael, Stokely search for term
Socio-political activist Stokely Carmichael was leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Changing the group's focus from integration to "black liberation," Carmichael popularized the phrase "black power" and emerged as the honorary prime minister of the Black Panther party. He opposed forming alliances with radical whites and resigned from the Panthers over their decision to use this approach (1968). Carmichael began to call himself Kwame Ture, after African socialist leaders Kwame Nkrumah and Ahmed Sekou Toure. Ture died in 1998 after a two-year battle with prostate cancer.
Carnegie Hall search for term
World-famous performance hall located in New York City. Since it’s founding in 1891 by industrialist Andrew Carnegie, the world’s most talented artists have graced the hallowed hall. Today, the building has become a cultural icon. Playing Carnegie Hall is considered one of the highest levels of achievement for a performing artist.
Carter, Betty search for term
Jazz singer, composer and band leader Betty Carter was born Lillie Mae Jones in Flint, Michigan. She is revered for upholding the history and traditions of classic and traditional jazz music. An innnovative vocal stylist, versatile improvisor, and recipient of numerous grammy nominations, she formed her own record label, Bet-Car, and went on to train many younger musicians during a period when traditional jazz was losing its commercial standing. She sang with Lionel Hampton, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and many other jazz legends. Ms. Carter died September 26, 1998 at her home in New York after being awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1997.
Carter, Jimmy search for term
The 39th President of the United States. Carter served from 1977 to 1981, and while his presidency was troubled by both energy and hostage crises, he was also responsible for bringing peace between Egypt and Israel. Today Carter remains active for human rights.
Carter, William S. search for term
Black Chicago artist, he graduated from the School of the Art Institute, and was involved with the W.P.A. along with Charles White and others.
Carver, George Washington search for term
A distinguished educator and agricultural researcher, George Washington Carver was born in Diamond, Missouri in 1864. Along with his mother and older brother, George spent his childhood on the plantation Moses and Susan Carver. There he learned the dynamics of crop rotation and cross-fertilization, which formed the basis of his later botanical discoveries. George Washington Carver developed numerous products from peanut and sweet potato plants, including several plastics, industrial lubricants, and facial creams. As Carver’s discoveries became known to the scientific and farming communities, he became an increasingly renowned symbol of African American success. He died in 1943.
Charles, Ray search for term
One of the preeminent singers/entertainers in the nation. A virtuoso piano player, the blind singer/songwriter achieved stardom with his 1960 record, “Georgia.” Since then he has won 12 Grammies, earned a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. He passed away on June 10, 2004.
Chartered Life Underwriter search for term
An individual who has attained a high degree of technical competency in the fields of life and health insurance and who is expected to abide by a code of ethics. Must have minimum of three years of experience in life or health insurance sales and have passed ten professional examinations in insurance, investments and taxation administered by The American College.
Chess Records search for term
Two Polish immigrant brothers, Leonard and Phil Chess, founded Chess Records in 1947. It would later grow to become one of the most successful and influential music labels of post-war America. The label recorded such legends as Muddy Waters, Howlin’ Wolf and John Lee Hooker and helped to establish the Chicago blues sound.
Chicago Alliance of African American Photographers search for term
Established by professional photographers Leslie Adkins, Bob Black, Martha Brock, Milbert O. Brown Jr., Terry Harris, Brent Jones and Lee Landry, the CAAAP was organized in 1999 to unify and promote the art of photography and through the photojournalistic, documentation of the African-American culture. The organization also presents exhibits, lectures and educational programs.
Chicago Defender search for term
Founded in 1905 by Robert S. Abbott, The Chicago Defender was the most influential newspaper published by African Americans in the United States. The Defender campaigned against white oppression and contributed heavily to the Northern Migration of more than one million African Americans leaving Jim Crow states for industrial cities of the North. The newspaper featured several prominent writers as regular columnists, including Gwendolyn Brooks and Langston Hughes. Still located in Chicago's historic Bronzeville community, the Defender circulates over 30,000 newspapers weekly.
Chicago State University search for term
Public university located on Chicago’s South Side. The university is home to the Gwendolyn Brooks Center for Black Literature and Creative Writing.
Chicago Symphony Orchestra search for term
One of the world's preeminent classical orchestras, this orchestra resides at the Chicago Symphony Center, an historic 1904 Daniel Burnham architectural site. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra maintains a reputation for the breadth of its classical repertoire and its tradition of musical excellence. More recently, the Chicago Symphony has expanded its offerings to include jazz and other popular genres.
Chicago Urban League search for term
Since 1916 this community-based organization has been working to eradicate racial segregation, discrimination, and the disenfranchisement of all poor communities. Currently headed by James Compton, the organization focuses on education, economic development and community empowerment. It is a member of the National Urban League.
Chicago, Illinois search for term
The largest city in Illinois, and the third largest city in the U.S.. The first permanent, non-indigenous settler in the region was a black Haitian named Jean Baptiste Point DuSable. In 1779 he built a house on the banks of the Chicago River, on what is today Michigan Avenue. After the infamous Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed all but several buildings in the region, Chicago rebuilt rapidly and experienced tremendous growth during the latter part of the 19th century. The city became a destination for immigrants from around the globe, as well as rural farmers and African Americans emigrating from the South. During this period Chicago developed its reputation as a city of industrial grit, ruthless political bosses and rich cultural diversity. Native poet Carl Sandburg called Chicago the “City of Big Shoulders” in his 1916 ”Chicago Poems,” and the nickname stuck. In recent years, Chicago has undergone yet another rebirth, witnessing a growth in population for the first time in decades. As of the 2000 Census, the city was home to 2,896,016 residents.
Chicago’s South Side search for term
Chicago’s South Side is a complex of African American communities that was created largely during the great Northern Migration period of the early 20th century. As a self-sufficient community within a segregated city, the South Side featured its own thriving economic and social structures until the years following the Civil Rights Movement when it experienced a depression brought about by the dynamics of integration.
China search for term
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the 19th and early 20th centuries, China was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under Mao Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor Deng Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision-making.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 search for term
Passed July 2, 1964, supporters of this landmark bill intended to abolish discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin. Often cited as the most important civil rights legislation since the Reconstruction period (1865-77), Congress enacted this bill in response to mounting public outrage over discriminatory practices in voting, employment, and access to public facilities.
Civil Rights Movement search for term
A massive effort led by African Americans seeking to abolish racial discrimination in the United States, the Civil Rights Movement officially began in 1955 with the organized boycott of the Montgomery, Alabama bus system. The movement was host to many different philosophies and approaches; however, a non-violent strategy promoted by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was the preferred means of resistance. The strategic application of boycotts, sit-ins and other nonviolent activity eroded the pattern of racially segregated public facilities in the South. On August 1963, the movement reached its climax with the historic March on Washington. Protestors united in support for a civil-rights bill pending in Congress, which eventually achieved the most important breakthroughs in equal-rights protection for African Americans since the Reconstruction period (1865-77).
Cleveland Call and Post search for term
Founded in 1916, the Cleveland Call and Post is one of the nation’s oldest and most prestigious black news publications. The newspaper gained prominence in the 1930s under the direction of publisher and editor William O. Walker.
Cleveland, Grover search for term
Both the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. The only president to be elected to two non-consecutive terms, Cleveland served from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897. In both terms, Cleveland fought against special interest groups and was particularly against railroad strikes.
Clinton, William search for term
The 42nd President of the United States. Clinton was the first Democratic President since Franklin Delano Roosevelt to be reelected and in his two terms, (1993-2001) Clinton presided over the longest peace-time economic expansion in U.S. history.
Coalition of 100 Black Women search for term
A thirty-year-old non-profit networking and community service organization. The coalition seeks to enhance career opportunities, facilitate education and empower African American women.
Coltrane, John search for term
Saxophonist, bandleader, composer and a larger than life Jazz legend. He first made a recording in 1949, playing BeBop with Dizzy Gillespie. Later, he would join the Miles Davis Quintet, where he was instantly recognized for his genius. After spending several years battling drug and alcohol addiction, Coltrane released his most successful and acclaimed recording, the masterpiece “A Love Supreme.” The record attempted to express redemption and faith through music. He died at the youthful age of 40, remembered for his unwavering support of young avant-garde jazz artists.
Columbia College search for term
An undergraduate and graduate institution that offers programs in the arts, communication and public information. It is located in Chicago’s loop.
Columbia University search for term
Ivy League University located in Morningside Heights, New York City. Founded as King’s College in 1754 it is the nation’s fifth oldest institution of higher learning. It is considered one of the most prestigious academic institutions in the nation.
Concerto search for term
A musical composition featuring one or several soloists and an orchestra. The solos highlight the virtuosity of each soloist often in contrast or counterpoint to the work of the orchestra.
Congo search for term
The Democratic Republic of the Congo, also known as Zaire, is located in central Africa. Founded as the kingdom of Kongo in the 1300s, this area evolved through coalitions with various indigenous people until it governed large sections of central Africa. The slave trade was a major influence in the region's disintegration by the end of the 19th century. At this time Europe controlled much the wealth of the area and Belgian investments in Congolese mining industry and mineral resources were especially significant. Kinshasa is its capital and largest city.
Congressional Black Caucus search for term
Formed in 1970 by 13 African American members of the U.S. House of Representatives, the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) joined together to strengthen their efforts in addressing the concerns of Black and minority citizens. CBC members believed that a united voice representing “the general welfare” of African American constituents would positively impact legislation and issues of public policy being considered in Congress. Currently, thirty-seven CBC members provide political influence and visibility for the largest and most populated urban centers in the United States in addition to many expansive and rural Congressional districts.
Connecticut search for term
The fifth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, Connecticut was home to part of the Freedom Trail. The Freedom Trail was part of the Underground Railroad which escaped slaves used to escape to Canada.
consul general search for term
A diplomatic officer or agent of the highest rank of a government in a foreign country.
Coolidge, Calvin search for term
The 30th President of the United States. Coolidge served from 1923 to 1929, and oversaw the economic prosperity following World War I and preceeding the Great Depression.
CORE search for term
The Congress of Racial Equality. The organization was founded in 1942 as the Committee of Racial Equality by an interracial group of students from Chicago. CORE was responsible for the Journey of Reconcilliation which tested the Supreme Court ruling on the banning of segregation in interstate travel in 1947, and later led the Freedom Rides, among other accomplishments.
Cosmopolitan Chamber of Commerce search for term
Located in Chicago’s south loop, this organization serves as a network of community members, small businesses and large firms. It seeks to promote economic development and cross-cultural partnerships.
Creole search for term
Refers to a person of mixed Black and European (normally French or Spanish) ancestry who speaks a creolized language, especially one based on French or Spanish; they are descended from or culturally related to the original French settlers of the southern United States, especially Louisiana. Also refers to a dialect or language spoken by such people.
Crisis Magazine search for term
Officially titled “The Crisis: A Record Of The Darker Races,” Crisis Magazine was an American monthly magazine published by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). First published in 1910, Crisis Magazine was edited by prominent scholar W.E.B. DuBois until 1934. A widely circulated national publication focusing on issues facing African Americans, Crisis Magazine was a forum for the young writers of the Harlem Renaissance, including Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, and Jean Toomer.


Dandridge, Dorothy search for term
Singer and actress Dorothy Dandridge was born in Ohio in 1923. At an early age, her mother took her and her sisters to Baptist churches, where they would sing and perform skits for the gathered congregations. In 1940, she landed her first movie role, and in 1949 began performing in the nightclub circuit. There she experienced intense racism as the main attraction yet still was being forced to use separate facilities and not speak to patrons. She continued on, landing a title role in Carmen Jones in 1954. After starring in Porgy and Bess in 1959, her career slowed down from there. She was found dead in 1965.
Davis, Miles search for term
Legendary trumpet player and jazz innovator. Davis is best remembered for his creative inertia, and bold, iconoclastic recordings including “Birth Of The Cool,” “Sketches of Spain,” and “Kind of Blue.” After getting his start with legend Charlie Parker in the late 1940s, Davis branched out and began the movement called “Cool Jazz.” In 1970, he released the revolutionary “Bitches Brew,” a fusion of jazz, funk and rock that went on to sell 400,000 copies, becoming the best-selling jazz album of all time.
Davis, Sammy, Jr. search for term
Popular singer and stage and film actor who started touring with his family's troupe, the Will Mastin Trio, at age three. He was a member of Frank Sinatra's “Rat Pack.” He nearly died in a 1954 car accident that resulted in the loss of his left eye. His films include Johnny Cool (1963) and Robin and the Seven Hoods (1964). His stage credits include Mr. Wonderful (1956). He passed away in 1990.
Delaware search for term
The first state to ratify the Constitution in 1787, the state of Delaware was founded in the early 1600s by Swedish and Dutch settlers but were driven out by the English. Despite a large population of Quakers, who were opposed to slavery, people continued to own slaves in the state until the end of the Civil War. The state of Delaware was one of five defendents in the Brown v. Board of Education case, but despite the ruling, desegregation was slow in many parts of the state. Wilmington, the largest city in the state, elected its first black mayor in 1993.
Denzel Washington search for term
Actor, director and producer born on December 28, 1954 in Mount Vernon, New York. He made his acting debut in the television movie, "Wilma" in 1975. Washington's first feature film was "Carbon Copy" in 1981. He went on to star in the television series, "St. Elsewhere" and feature films like "A Soldier's Story", "Cry Freedom" and "The Mighty Quinn". He was nominated and won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in "Glory" in 1989. He was nominated for Best Actor in 1992 for Spike Lee's "Malcolm X" and was nominated again for his role as Ruben "Hurricane" Carter in the "The Hurricane" in 1999. He won Best Actor, the first African American to win the award since Sidney Poitier in 1963, for his role in "Training Day" in 2001. Washington's other film credits include "Mo' Better Blues", "Devil In A Blue Dress", "He Got Game" and "Remember The Titans". He made is directorial debut in 2002 with "Antwone Fisher".
dermatologist search for term
a practitioner in the science of the skin and its diseases.
Detroit search for term
Seventh largest American city, located in southern Michigan. Since the American automotive revolution of the 1920s, Detroit has been synonymous with the automobile industry. In the 1960s, the city gained national attention as birthplace of Motown. The label, founded by black entrepreneur Berry Gordy, featured black singers and performers who created a distinct and novel sound that ruled the pop charts for much of the decade. As of the 2000 Census, the city’s population is 951,270.
Detroit Symphony Orchestra search for term
The Detroit Symphony Orchestra was established in 1914 and is fast becoming one of the most prominent orchestras in the United States. Briefly renamed the Paradise Theatre in 1941, Detroit's Orchestra Hall once served as a premier jazz venue which featured Ella Fitzgerald, Billy Holliday, Count Basie and Duke Ellington. Since its founding, the Detroit Symphony Orchestra has been at the forefront of music education. The Detroit Symphony Orchestra Fellowship Program for African American musicians and the African American Composers Residency are examples of this orchestra's commitment to outreach and training.
Dollars and Sense Magazine search for term
A “Bi-Monthly Magazine of Economic Issues and Opinion,” the publication was founded in 1974 by the Union for Radical Political Economics. To this day, the magazine operates as a collective, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
DuBois, W.E.B. search for term
Scholar, social scientist and political activist W(illiam) E(dward) B(urghardt) DuBois served as director of research for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and editor of its influential magazine, “The Crisis”. His famous book, The Souls of Black Folk, examined the dualistic nature of the African American experience and strategies to combat oppression. The critique polarized the philosophical positions of Black intellectuals between Booker T. Washington’s conservative strategy and DuBois’ more ‘radical’ framework. He left the United States for Ghana under allegations that he was an agent working for foreign governments. DuBois died in 1963.
DuSable Museum of African American History search for term
Founded in 1961 in the home of artist and writer Dr. Margaret Burroughs, the DuSable Museum is dedicated to the preservation and exhibition of African American and pan-African artifacts and history. In 1973 the Museum was moved to its present location in Washington Park, Illinois where it continues to serve as an important resource of African American scholarship.


East St. Louis, Illinois search for term
Southeastern Illinois city with a population of 31,542. The city’s thriving industrial base left the city in the 1960s, leading to high unemployment and near economic collapse.
Easter Seals search for term
An 80-year-old organization that offers support services and advocacy on the behalf of those with disabilities and special needs. Ohio businessman Edgar Allen founded Easter Seals, after he lost his son in a streetcar accident. The organization is named for the famous ‘seals’ that carry the organization’s logo and are affixed to envelopes during fundraising drives.
Ebony Magazine search for term
Founded in the early 1940s by John H. Johnson of Chicago, Illinois, Ebony Magazine is a successful monthly journal circulated by Johnson Publishing Company, Inc., the world's largest African American-owned publishing company. Featuring news, entertainment, business, and other topics catering to a black audience, Ebony Magazine continues to enjoy a large subscriber base of over 2 million readers.
Egypt search for term
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C. and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II.
Eisenhower, Dwight search for term
The 34th President of the United States. Eisenhower served from 1953 to 1961, and under his leadership, federal troops were sent to Little Rock, Arkansas to ensure school desegregation took place. He also fully desegregated the armed forces.
Ellington, Duke search for term
Originally named Edward Kennedy Ellington, composer and bandleader Duke was born in Washington, D.C. in 1899. A precocious child, Ellington developed his early piano skills by imitating the trills of local ragtime musicians. A successful professional musician by the early 1920s, Ellington settled in New York City, the capital of the jazz and big band era. Between December 1927 and 1931, Duke and his band headlined at Harlem’s prestigious Cotton Club, which placed him in the international spotlight. Throughout the following four decades, Duke Ellington established himself as one of the most prolific and innovative figures within American music. He died in 1974.
Emmy Award search for term
Awards given by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences in recognition of outstanding television programming. The awards, for both daytime and primetime programming, and given locally and nationally.
Englewood High School search for term
A Chicago public high school, located on the city’s historic South Side. President Bill Clinton visited the school in 1999.
epidemiologist search for term
A person who studies the causes, distribution, and control of diseases in populations.
Essence Magazine search for term
A lifestyle magazine that caters to African American women, Essence has a monthly circulation of over 1 million and a readership of nearly 8 million. Since it’s founding by Edward Lewis over thirty years ago, Essence has thrived under the direction of Susan Taylor.
ETA Creative Arts Foundation search for term
Founded in 1971 by actress, director, and producer Abena Brown, the ETA Creative Arts Foundation is among Chicago’s most productive African American institutions dedicated to the performing arts. Located on Chicago’s South Side, ETA has remained a community resource dedicated to the self-expression of African American culture. The theater has received national recognition for the originality of its dramatic productions and the effectiveness of its community outreach programs.
Ethiopia search for term
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule, one exception being the Italian occupation of 1936-41. In 1974 a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile Selassie (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), in 1991. A constitution was adopted in 1994 and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995.
Evers, Medgar search for term
Born in Decatur, Mississippi, in 1925, Medgar Evers fought in Normandy during World War II. After college he and his wife moved to Mound Bayou, Mississippi, during which time Evers began to establish local chapters of the NAACP throughout the Delta and organizing boycotts of gasoline stations that refused to allow blacks to use their restrooms. He worked in Mound Bayou as an insurance agent until 1954, the year a Supreme Court decision ruled school segregation unconstitutional. Despite the court’s ruling, Evers applied for and was denied admission to the University of Mississippi Law School, but his attempt to integrate the state’s oldest public university attracted the attention of the NAACP’s national office, and that same year he was appointed Mississippi’s first field secretary for the NAACP. His work getting James Meredith admitted to the University of Mississippi in 1962 was successful, but on June 12, 1963, Evers was assassinated. His accussed killer, Byron De La Beckwith, was twice tried in the 1960s, but it was not until 1994 that he was convicted of the killing.


Federal Communications Commission search for term
An independent governmental agency that reports to Congress. Since 1934, the FCC has been regulating radio, television, wire, satellite and cable communications. Presently headed by Chairman Michael K. Powell, the FCC is comprised of five commissioners appointed by the president and confirmed by Congress.
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago search for term
One of twelve Federal Reserve Banks nationwide that together serve as the nation’s central banks under the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago assists in setting monetary policy, providing services to banks and governmental agencies throughout the area.
Fellowship Baptist Church search for term
Affectionately named "The Ship" by its parishioners, Fellowship Baptist Church was founded by Reverend Clay Evans in 1958. Located on Chicago's South Side, Fellowship Baptist Church has developed a thriving congregation over the years. The Church's weekly sermons, broadcast via television and radio in ten states, reach millions of people. Its renowned 250-voice choir has produced eight gospel albums with Reverend Evans as vocal soloist.
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory search for term
The lab was commissioned by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, under a bill signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on November 21, 1967. On May 11, 1974, the laboratory was renamed in honor of 1938 Nobel Prize winner Enrico Fermi, one of the preeminent physicists of the atomic age. The lab's mission is to advance the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter and energy by providing leadership and resources for qualified researchers to conduct basic research at the frontiers of high energy physics and related disciplines.
Fisk University search for term
Fisk University is the oldest university in Nashville, having been founded in 1866 as a liberal arts school committed to educating newly freed slaves. Fisk is home to the famous Jubilee Singers, who traveled around the country in 1871 to save the school from financial despair and continue to amaze audiences today. Fisk alumni have gone on to become world renowned artists, civic and business leaders, and many other walks of life.
Fitzgerald, Ella search for term
The First Lady of Jazz, Ella Fitzgerald was born in 1918, and performed for the first time at the age of fifteen at the Apollo Theater. Fitzgerald, who had rudimentary musical education, quickly built a reputation among musicians and singers for her clarity of tone, her rhythmic perfection and a range that ran from somber lows to tinkling highs. By 1955 Fitzgerald was working with Cole Porter and Duke Ellington. During the course of her career, she was awarded ten Grammy Awards. After a struggle with diabetes and heart surgery, Fitzgerald died in 1996.
Foote Cone & Belding search for term
Founded in 1873, the world’s third oldest advertising agency. From 1898-1942 the “Father of Modern Advertising,” Albert Lasker served as the company’s chair. Today the company has offices around the globe, and boasts such clients as AT&T, Merck Pharmaceuticals and Tropicana.
Ford, Gerald search for term
The 38th President of the United States. Ford was the first president to succeed a president who had resigned, following Nixon and the Watergate scandal. He served from 1974 to 1977, working hard to heal a nation that no longer fully trusted government.
Foxx, Redd search for term
Born John Elroy Sanford, Foxx was a comedian who made his mark in the TV smash Sanford and Son (1972–77) after many years of odd jobs and short stretches on the night club circuit, including a kitchen job with Malcolm Little who would later be known as Malcolm X. Foxx hit it big in Las Vegas in 1968, but didn't make the celluloid jump until the 1970 film Cotton Comes to Harlem. The role brought him to the attention of producers Bud Yorkin and Norman Lear who decided to cast Foxx in Sanford and Son, his first major success. The show was followed by others, including The Redd Foxx Comedy Hour (1977–78) and the Redd Foxx Show (1986). He later co-edited The Redd Foxx Encyclopedia of Black Humor (1977). He passed away in 1991.
France search for term
Originally a monarchy, France followed the American example of revolution. The French Revolution ultimately led to the execution of thousands of members of the ruling class. Later, Napoleon Bonaparte would proclaim himself emperor and thrust Europe in war. Although ultimately a victor in World Wars I and II, France suffered extensive losses in its empire, wealth, manpower, and rank as a dominant nation-state. Nevertheless, France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. Since 1958, it has constructed a presidential democracy resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier parliamentary democracies. In recent years, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of the euro in January 2002.
Fulbright Scholarship search for term
The premiere program for international study offered by the United States, the Fulbright Scholarship was founded in 1946 and has sent hundreds of thousands of individuals around the globe, both to study and to teach.
Funk search for term
An American musical genre inspired largely by African rhythms, funk first achieved popularity during the early 1970s. In that era, artists such as James Brown, the Ohio Players, and Parliament provided many listeners with their first exposure to funk’s percussive beats and politically-conscious lyrics. Funk has also had a powerful influence on many of the traditional forms of African American music. For example, Miles Davis and Herbie Hancock experimented with the synthesis of jazz and funk in their later compositions.


Gacy, John Wayne search for term
Infamous Chicago-area serial killer who tortured and killed more than 30 young men during the 1970s.
Garvey, Marcus search for term
Born in Jamaica in 1887, Marcus Garvey traveled extensively around the world, witnessing the plight of blacks everywhere. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association(UNIA) in 1914, and held the first convention in New York in 1920. That same year he also began publishing The Negro Word. The UNIA was a sucess, establishing offices in forty countries. After some failed business ventures, due largely to graft by those around him, Garvey was imprisoned and deported to Jamaica. He later returned to England, where he died in 1940. His followers came to be known as "Garveyites."
Gaye, Marvin search for term
Famous singer born in Washington, D.C. in 1939. His 22-year career with Motown includes hits "Pride and Joy," duets with Mary Wells and Tammi Terrell, as well as best-selling albums exploring his social consciousness (What's Going On) and sexuality (Let's Get It On, Midnight Love). He is killed by his father following an argument in 1984.
George Foster Peabody Award search for term
Prestigious broadcasting award first granted in 1940. The award is given in recognition of excellence in journalistic broadcasting, both in radio and television. The award is administered by the Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia. It is named after banker/philanthropist George Foster Peabody.
Georgia search for term
Georgia, the fourth state to ratify the Constitution, later seceeded from the Union on January 29, 1861, to join the Confederacy. After the Civil War, Georgia was a hotbed of racial tensions, including race riots in 1907 and in the 1960s. Since then, Georgia's African American community has thrived, sending numerous individuals to both Federal and state office.
Germany search for term
As Europe's largest economy and most populous nation, Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed the country in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990.
Ghana search for term
A country in Western Africa, Ghana is situated on the Gulf of Guinea. Inhabited by a number of ancient kingdoms before its colonization by the British in the 1870s, the country has a population of 18 million people and over 60 ethnic groups. Nearly 47 percent of the people are classified as Akan, which includes the famous Ashanti people. The Mole-Dagbani tribes, which reside mainly on the savannah, represent 16 percent of the population. The Ewe and Ga-Dangbe lineages are the other major groups that share Ghana’s diverse terrain. The nation became independent in 1957. Accra is the capital as well as the largest city.
Gillespie, Dizzy search for term
John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie was born in South Carolina in 1917 and struck out with his trumpet on a career in music in 1935. After working with Cab Calloway in 1939, Dizzy went on to play with such legends as Ella Fitzgerald, Coleman Hawkins and Duke Ellington. He had a strong interest in Afro-Cuban music, and would later perform experimental pieces with Thelonius Monk. He continued to play well into 1980s, continuing to develop and refine his style. He passed away in 1993.
Going to Lay Down My Sword and Shield search for term
Famed black spiritual, one of the best-known American folk songs, it is most commonly known as “Down By the Riverside.”
Golden Thirteen search for term
Name given to the group of 13 men who became the first African American Naval officers on active duty. The men served with distinction during World War II, and went on to pursue various civilian careers.
Grammy Award search for term
Presented by the Recording Academy, the Grammy Awards are presented annually to musicians representing various musical genres as the best in their field throughout the past year.
Great Depression search for term
With the collapse of the stock market in October of 1929, the United States plunged into what is known as the "Great Depression." For over a decade, jobs were scarce, and the effects were felt by the African American community far worse than the population as a whole. America's entrance into World War II, in combination with policies from President Franklin Roosevelt's administration, helped to reverse the economic conditions.
Greece search for term
Often recalled for the philosophical and mathematical developments spurred there in ancient times, modern Greece has had a more turbulent history. Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. Following the defeat of Communist rebels in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship, which in 1967 suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country, lasted seven years. Democratic elections in 1974 and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy; Greece joined the European Community or EC in 1981 (which became the EU in 1992).
Gregory Hines search for term
Tony Award-winning actor, dancer and singer born on February 14, 1946 began dancing with his older brother, Maurice Hines, Jr., and father, Maurice Hines, Sr., when he and his brother were young boys. Hines made is Broadway debut in 1954 in The Girl in Pink Tights. Hines went on to perform in plays such as Eubie! and Sophisticated Ladies. Hines won a Tony Award for his role in the revue of Jelly’s Last Jam. Hines also appeared on television shows including Will & Grace and his own sitcom, The Gregory Hines Show. Hines’ film credits include Tap, Waiting to Exhale and The Cotton Club.
Gullah search for term
The Gullah are a distinctive group of Black Americans from South Carolina and Georgia in the southeastern United States. They live in small farming and fishing communities along the Atlantic coastal plain and on the chain of Sea Islands which runs parallel to the coast. Because of their geographical isolation and strong community life, the Gullah have been able to preserve more of their African cultural heritage than any other group of Black Americans. They speak a creole language similar to Sierra Leone Krio, use African names, tell African folktales, make African-style handicrafts such as baskets and carved walking sticks, and enjoy a rich cuisine based primarily on rice. Gullah refers to the people, their language and culture.


Haiti search for term
Once a Spanish, and later a French, colony, this Caribbean island was established as a resource for raw materials including cocoa, coffee, cotton and sugar cane which were cultivated by the labor of African slaves. Forced out by Haitian insurgents, Napoleon's forces fled in 1804 leaving Haiti to become the first independent Black nation. More recently, Haiti has experienced political instability, sporadic military governance and intense poverty.
Hampton Institute search for term
Founded in 1868 and chartered as a normal and agricultural school in 1870, the Hampton Institute was one of the first black colleges and was also a pioneer in Native American education.
Hampton University search for term
Co-educational historically black university located in southeastern Virginia. Today the school boasts six schools and an enrollment of 6,000. It is home to the oldest African American History museum in the United States.
Hampton, Lionel search for term
A pioneer jazz vibraphonist, Lionel Hampton, was also a band leader, instrumentalist and ambassador for jazz. He began his career as a percussionist and drummer, but was introduced to the vibraphone in 1930 by Louis Armstrong. In 1936, he was invited to join Benny Goodman, who along with pianist Teddy Wilson and drummer Gene Krupa, formed the first racially integrated jazz group. Known primarily as a swing jazz performer, he also worked with a wide variety of musicians including Quincy Jones, Wes Montgomery, Fats Navarro and Clark Terry. Among his proteges were singers Betty Carter, Aretha Franklin, Dinah Washington and Joe Williams.
Harlem search for term
One of the most storied and vibrant African American communities in the country, located in the northern part of Manhattan Island, New York City. Originally a rural area of New York, Harlem experienced an influx of wealth and rapid development in the 1870s, when three elevated train lines were added to service the neighborhood. During the late 19th century much of Harlem’s housing stock was built to attract the city’s well-to-do. When the real estate market crashed in 1904 (due to speculation and over-development), black real estate developer Philip Payton began converting the neighborhood into a haven for the city’s black middle class. Soon after, during the 1920s Harlem was home to a thriving African American cultural scene, dubbed the Harlem Renaissance. Since then, Harlem has been a geographical locus for black culture, activism, arts and struggle.
Harlem Globetrotters search for term
Founded in 1927 as Sapperstein's Harlem Globetrotters, this famous basketball team, known for being virtually unstopable on the court, will make history repeatedly over the decades, with some of the most talented players in basketball joining together. Among their highlights include a 1,270 game winning streak, broken in 2000, Pope John Paul II being named the honorary seventh Globetrotter at a ceremony in St. Peter's Square, and having played an unprecedented 20,000 games in during the existence of the team; no other team in any professional sport has ever accomplished this.
Harlem on My Mind search for term
A 1979 photography exhibit of black photographers, shown in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Harlem Renaissance search for term
During the 1920s and 1930s in Harlem, New York, African American artists experienced an unprecedented outpouring of creativity in art, literature, music and dance. The Harlem Renaissance exalted the unique culture of African Americans and redefined African American expression, stimulating a new confidence in racial pride.
Harlem Yankees search for term
A semi-professional black basketball team that barnstormed throughout the country during the 1940s.
Harris, Patricia Roberts search for term
Born in 1924, she was the first African American woman to serve in a president's cabinet and the first to serve as secretary of two posts. After earning a law degree from George Washington University in 1960, Harris was admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court. By 1969, she was the dean of the Howard University School of Law, and in 1977 President Jimmy Carter appointed her as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. In 1979, she was named Secretary of Health and Human Services. She passed away in 1985.
Harvard University search for term
The oldest and most prestigious academic institution in the nation. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the Harvard University has trained and employed some of the finest thinkers in American history, producing over 40 Nobel laureates. Seven presidents have been Harvard graduates, including President George W. Bush who received an MBA from Harvard Business School in 1975. The university is named for its first benefactor, Minister John Harvard.
Helen Hayes search for term
White theate, television, radio, and film actress who began acting at the age of five. Hayes was one of two women to have won a Tony, Emmy, Grammy and Oscar awards in her career. The Helen Hayes Awards were established in Washington, D.C. to celebrate the theatre productions and performances conducted in the nation's capital.
Holiday, Billie search for term
Legendary singer Billie Holiday, or "Lady Day" as she came to be known, was born in Baltimore, Maryland. Listening to jazz in a "house of ill repute" where she scrubbed floors, Holiday became entranced with the sounds. She started out her career in small Harlem nightclubs before touring with Count Basie and Artie Shaw. After going solo, Holiday recorded more than 200 songs, and never received royalties for them. She passed away at the age of forty-four.
Horne, Lena search for term
One of the most popular African American performers of the 1940s and 1950s, Lena Horne was born in Brooklyn. At sixteen, she was singing in the famous Cotton Club, and a few years later was on her way to Hollywood. By the 1940s, she was the highest paid black actor in the country, and had a string of hits. The 1950s found her labeled a Communist, which hurt her, but her career recovered as she became active in the Civil Rights Movement. She followed that with international tours and a show on Broadway. Horne is best known for her song, "Stormy Weather."
Houston, Charles search for term
Born in Washington, D.C. in 1895, Houston attended Harvard University Law School and became a lecturer there. In 1935, he was recruited to form the legal department of the NAACP. He appointed future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall to be his assistant in 1936, and together they filed numerous briefs over the years to challege segregation laws. Houston later served as dean of the Howard University Law School. He passed away in 1950.
Howard University search for term
Based in Washington, D.C., Howard University was founded as a theological seminary to train African American clergymen in 1867. Guided by the motto “Veritas Et Utilitas” or “Truth And Service,” the university was charged with the task of providing an education for newly emancipated slaves. A mainstay within the network of historic black universities, Howard University graduates have achieved notoriety in many facets of American life, including playwright Amiri Baraka and former Illinois State Attorney General Hon. Roland Burris.
Hughes, Langston search for term
Langston Hughes was born in 1901 in Joplin, Missouri and went on to a career as a prolific writer and orator. A lover of jazz and the blues, Hughes seamlessly blended the musical genres with his poetry. He became one of the members of what came to be known as the Harlem Renaissance. Hughes wrote poetry, plays, musicals and a variety of other forms. He passed away in 1967.
Hull House search for term
Social service organization founded by Jane Addams in 1889. Originally called a ‘Settlement House,’ the Chicago-based organization offered services to underserved children and their families. Today it is one of the largest organizations of its kind in the nation.
Hurston, Zora Neale search for term
Folklorist and author, Hurston participated in the Harlem Renaissance with other literary giants such as Langston Hughes. She was born in 1891 in Eatonville, Florida, where her mother died shortly after her birth. She left home for Baltimore and an education in 1917 before moving to New York. Her most famous work is Their Eyes Were Watching God, and she wrote several other works as well, including Mules and Men and Dust Tracks on a Road. She died in poverty in 1960.


Illinois search for term
The twenty-first state admitted to the Union, Illinois became a state on December 3, 1818. In 1865, it became the first state to ratify the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery, and in 1973 it becomes the first state to recognize a holiday for Martin Luther King, Jr.
Illinois House of Representatives search for term
The lower house of the Illinois State General Assembly, it convened for the first time in 1909. The 118-member body is responsible for “enacting, amending, or repealing laws, passing resolutions, adopting appropriation bills and conducting inquiries on proposed legislation.” Members are elected every two years to two-year terms.
Independence Ceremony search for term
Beginning in the 1950s, many African nations reclaimed their sovereignty from colonial forces. The first of these nations was Ghana, which gained independence from Great Britian in March 1957 due to the efforts of Kwame Nkrumah and the Convention People's Party (CPP). Bolstered by Ghana’s victory, other African nations fought for and won independence, including Kenya (1963), Angola (1976), and Namibia (1988).
India search for term
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, goes back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in 12th were followed by European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru led to independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.
Indiana search for term
The nineteenth state to join the Union, Indiana was accepted into the United States in 1816. Indiana sided with the Union during the Civil War. The capital, Indianapolis, is a bustling metropolis, and Gary, Indiana, near Chicago, is home to many industries and a large African American community.
Indianapolis Recorder search for term
Black newspaper founded in 1899. In 1990, the paper was purchased by businessman William Mays.
Indonesia search for term
Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago, consisting of more than 17,000 islands, 6,000 of which are inhabited. It achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949.
Institute of Positive Education/New Concept School search for term
Founded on Chicago's South Side in 1969 by poet and publisher Haki Madhubuti and his wife Safisha, the IPE/NC School offers an innovative African and African American-based curriculum.
Iowa search for term
The 29th state to join the Union, Iowa entered the United States in 1846. Known as the "Corn State," Iowa is covered with vast farmlands.
Iran search for term
Nestled between Asia and the Middle East, Iran was known as Persia until 1935. The region has been home to numerous civilizations over the centuries. Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling shah was forced into exile.
Iraq search for term
Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by Britain during the course of World War I; in 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under the administration of the United Kingdom. In stages over the next dozen years, Iraq attained its independence as a kingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of military strongmen have ruled the country since then, the latest being Saddam Hussein. Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990, Iraq seized Kuwait, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years resulted in the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 and the ouster of the Saddam Hussein regime.
Israel search for term
Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides. In April of 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. In addition, in 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations were conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives (from the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip) and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement. But progress toward a permanent status agreement has been undermined by the outbreak of Palestinian-Israeli violence since September 2000.
Italy search for term
Recognizable on maps by its boot-like appearance, Italy sits within the southern region of Europe and is surrounded by four seas and a number of Mediterranean islands including Sicily, Sardinia, Elba and Capri . Italy is known for being the seat of the Roman Empire and as a center of European arts and culture during the Renaissance.


Jackson Five search for term
Pop music group comprised of five brothers. Originally from Gary, Indiana, the family group signed to Barry Gordy’s Motown record label and achieved success in the 1970s with hits like “ABC” and “I Want You Back.” The lead singer, Michael, and his sister, Janet, went on to pop stardom, while other members of the family had less successful adult careers. The group was discovered by Oscar Brown Jr.
Jackson, Mahalia search for term
Known as "The Queen of Gospel Music," Mahalia Jackson was born in New Orleans in 1912 and moved to Chicago at an early age. She absorbed the sounds of blues singers Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith, but it was the church to whom she pledged her allegiance. She began singing gospel in the 1920s at Chicago's Greater Salem Baptist Church and performing with Prince Johnson Gospel Singers. By the late 1930s she had begun recording as a solo artist, and in the early '40s she toured with the great Thomas Dorsey. As illustrated by "Move On Up a Little Higher," her charismatic performing style influenced the young Aretha Franklin among many others. Jackson died of heart failure in 1972 at age 59.
Jackson, Reverend Jesse search for term
Ordained Baptist minister, Rev. Jesse Louis Jackson was born October 8, 1941. His work in civil rights began early in college when, as a campus leader at the Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina in Greensboro, he spearheaded protests that forced the integration of the city’s restaurants and theaters. Following the assassination of his mentor Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Jackson became a national figure by founding Operation PUSH (People United To Save Humanity), an organization working to improve the lives of African Americans. In the 1980s Jackson continued to raise awareness of important political and social issues with projects such as the National Rainbow Coalition (1986) and during his campaigns for the Democratic Presidential nomination (1984 / 1988). He has also received international acclaim for his role in the release of hostages being held in Iraq and Bosnia.
Jamaica search for term
Independent Caribbean island nation, it is one of the largest islands in the Caribbean. Conquered by the British in 1655, it remained a British colony, until 1962 when it achieved independence. The modern-day population of Jamaica is comprised mainly of the descendants of the African slaves who were forcibly brought to the island to work the fields. It is presently a parliamentary democracy. The official language is English but the local ‘patois’ is spoken more commonly. Jamaica is the birthplace of Reggae music, one of the most important musical genres of the century, and also one of the most popular forms of music the world over.
Japan search for term
While retaining its time-honored culture, Japan rapidly absorbed Western technology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians, bureaucrats, and business executives. The economy experienced a major slowdown starting in the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth.
Jazz search for term
A form of music developed by African Americans during the early years of the twentieth century, jazz is known as America’s classical music. A revolutionary departure from previous canons of musical arrangement and performance, the enigmatic compositions of jazz are characterized by improvisation, complex rhythms, and harmonic exploration. The genre has evolved into a variety of complex styles, including the trumpet-heavy New Orleans style, mainstream orchestrations of Big Band/Swing, and the unpredictability of Free Jazz. Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, and Miles Davis have been some of the most influential figures in jazz. It continues to maintain a strong influence on more contemporary types of music, from "pop" and rock 'n' roll to ‘hip hop’ and ‘rhythm and blues.’
Jessye, Eva search for term
Born in 1895, Eva Jessye gained prominence as the foremost African American choral conductor of her era. Following studies at Western University in Kansas City, Kansas and at Langston University in Oklahoma, Eva Jessye became a teacher in the segregated Oklahoma school system. In 1922, she moved to New York where she worked as a journalist and amateur choir conductor for several gospel groups. Eva Jessye eventually attracted the attention of Broadway producers, and she became the original conductor for Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess and Vidor’s Hallelujah. Later, during the Civil Rights Movement, the Eva Jessye Choir was named the official choir for Dr. Martin Luther King’s 1963 march. Eva Jessye died in 1992.
Jim Crow search for term
Named for an antebellum minstrel show character, Jim Crow Laws were passed in the U.S. by Southern state legislatures during the late 19th century. Statues based upon the principal of "separate but equal" created a legal caste system supporting white supremacist ideology. African Americans were subjected to poll taxes, literacy tests, segregated public facilities and other devices designed to disenfranchise the population. The structure of legal segregation was finally dismanteled by civil rights legislation enacted during the 1960s.
Johnson Publishing Company search for term
The world’s largest African American-owned publishing company. John H. Johnson founded the company in 1942 with a publication called Negro Digest. Today it publishes both Ebony and Jet, two of the oldest and most popular African American magazines in the nation. Johnson Publishing Company is based in Chicago.
Johnson, James Weldon search for term
Lawyer, lyricist, and social activist, James Weldon Johnson was born in Jacksonville, Florida in 1871. After graduating from Atlanta University, he returned to Jacksonville and worked as a principal in Stanton Elementary School. Johnson collaborated as a lyricist with his brother on some 200 songs, including "Lift Every Voice and Sing," long considered to be the African American national anthem. Under Theodore Roosevelt's administration, Johnson was appointed U.S. Ambassador to Venezuela (1906), Nicaragua (1909) and Azores (1912). Upon his return to the U.S., Johnson joined the NAACP and served in numerous capacities with the organization for almost 15 years. He was one of the leading contributors to Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s, publishing anthologies of African American poetry as well as his own works. Johnson also taught at Fisk University and New York University. He died in 1938.
Johnson, Lyndon B. search for term
The 36th President of the United States. In 1963, he ascended to the Presidency from the Vice Presidency following the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Johnson’s legacy in domestic affairs stands as one of the most influential of the century. After his re-election in 1964, Johnson engineered a package of legislation known as “Great Society” programs, which included Head Start, Civil Rights legislation, Affirmative Action, and the ‘War on Poverty.’ In foreign affairs, Johnson’s record is decidedly more controversial. His administration escalated U.S. involvement in Vietnam resulting in civil unrest and widespread protest at home. Facing harsh criticism from both the left and right, Johnson chose not to seek re-election in 1968. He died in 1973 at home, on his Texas ranch.
Jones, Quincy search for term
Black musician, songwriter, and entertainment mogul. In his distinguished career, Quincy Jones has produced studio albums, television shows, and founded a magazine. Jones has worked with nearly every major American recording artist of the last half-century including Frank Sinatra, Miles Davis, and Ray Charles. He has been the recipient of numerous honors and awards.
Joyner, Tom search for term
Host of “The Tom Joyner Morning Show,” the nationally syndicated morning radio broadcast on ABC. The show fuses news, sports, music and political activism. Tom Joyner has won four Billboard Magazine Awards and has been inducted into the Radio Hall of Fame.


Kansas search for term
The thirty-fourth state to join the Union, Kansas entered the United States in 1861. It was a crucial battlefied for slavery leading up to the Civil War, with both sides hotly contesting whether it would be a free or slave state. The First Colored Volunteers of Kansas are the first black troops to see action in the Civil War. Many of these troops will later be murdered after being captured in Arkansas. Today it has a population of 2.6 million people. The capital is Topeka.
Kennedy Center Honors search for term
Award given by the Kennedy Center in recognition of outstanding lifetime achievement in the performing arts.
Kennedy, John F. search for term
Elected in 1960, the nation’s 35th president, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was both the first Roman Catholic elected to the office and the youngest. Son of famed Boston entrepreneur and public citizen, Joseph Kennedy, John F. Kennedy’s youth and vibrancy captured the imagination of the American electorate. In 1963, after serving just two years, Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas during a motorcade ride.
Kennedy, Robert F. search for term
The brother of 35th President John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Like his brother, Robert F. Kennedy served in the armed forces and graduated from Harvard University. He also served in his brother’s administration as Attorney General, where he won notoriety for his dogged pursuit of organized crime bosses and then-Teamsters President Jimmy Hoffa. As Attorney General he also sent federal troops to enforce the integration of the University of Mississippi. After his brother’s assassination in 1963, Kennedy was elected to the Senate from state of New York. After four years as a Senator, he announced his candidacy for President, winning crucial Democratic primaries in Indiana and Nebraska. Tragically, he was killed on June 5th, in Los Angeles, California, shortly after claiming victory in that state’s primary.
Kentucky search for term
The fifteenth state to join the United States, Kentucy was granted statehood in 1792. Divided on the issue of slavery, the state was neutral in the early part of the Civil War and officially joined the Union in late 1861. The scene of numerous important events during the Civil Rights Movement, Kentucky passes what Martin Luther King, Jr., calls the "the strongest and most comprehensive" Civil Rights Bill passed by a Southern state in 1966. Ten years later, due to a historical oversight, Kentucky finally ratifies the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
Kicks and Company search for term
A musical written by Oscar C. Brown Jr. in 1960. The musical follows the adventures of the carefree and devilish character Mr. Kicks as he involves himself with a sit-in of black students at the fictional Freedman University for Negroes.
King Jr., Martin Luther search for term
Born January 15, 1929, this ordained clergyman and Nobel Prize winner was one of the principal leaders of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Dr. King's advocacy of nonviolent protest to end legal segregation and racial discrimination was instrumental in forcing the federal government to confront the issues of injustice in the United States. Dr. King served as president of the Montgomery Improvement Association, an organization responsible for the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott. Additionally, he co-founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Dr. King's last speech was delivered April 3, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee during a bitter sanitation workers' strike. He was assassinated the following evening. In 1986, Martin Luther King's birthday was officially declared a federal holiday.
Kitt, Eartha search for term
Famed African American singer/actor/performer. The versatile Kitt is one of a handful of entertainers to be nominated for a Tony, a Grammy and an Emmy. She got her start as a dancer in the Dunham Troupe.
Korean War search for term
The Korean War, fought from 1950 until 1953, was waged over preventing the spread of Communism to all of South East Asia. The war began with the invasion of South Korea by North Korea, and after near victory for United States forces, they are driven back, and nearly defeated. Ultimately, gains are remaid, and the United States, North Korea and China sign an armistice, which results in the establishment of a demilatarized zone dividing country in two. It remains divided today.


Liberia search for term
One of only two African countries not formed by Western colonial forces, Liberia's first African American settlers arrived in 1816. The Liberian colony elected its first black governor in 1841, and became an independent nation in 1847. With most of the populace settling around the coastal capital of Monrovia, and not until the 20th century did much of the inland terrain come under government control. Recent decades have seen civil war and United Nations intervention to put an end to the violence.
Libretto search for term
A libretto presents the story or text of an opera or an oratorio. It consists of the words of a musical work, such as an opera, which explains the underlying structure or motivation of both the spoken and sung roles.
Lincoln University search for term
Founded in 1854 in Pennsylvania, Lincoln University is the oldest black college in the nation. Originally named the Ashmun Insititute, the school was renamed Lincoln University in 1866 in honor of the slain president. The university boasts such distinguished alums as poet Langston Hughes (’29), Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall (’30), and first President of Nigeria Kwame Nkrumah (’39).
Lincoln, Abraham search for term
The 16th President of the United States. Lincoln served from 1861 to 1865. During his presidency the Civil War was fought, and his issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in the north, as well as paved the road for complete emancipation.
Little Rock Nine search for term
On September 24, 1957 nine black pupils entered Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, with an escort of paratroopers. The intransigence of the South against the "law of the land" was amply demonstrated when Governor Orval Faubus summoned National Guardsmen to turn away the Black puplis. A direct challenge was being posed to the federal government which had already approved a desegregation plan for the district. When the Black students were forced to withdraw from the premises of the school--in direct defiance of a federal district court order--President Eisenhower, for the first time since Reconstruction, sent in federal troops to protect the rights of the beleaguered students. Some 1,000 paratroopers descended on Little Rock, and were joined by 10,000 National Guardsmen. The soldiers remained on call for the entire school year, inasmuch as Governor Faubus refused to assume the responsibility for maintaining order in the community.
Louis, Joe search for term
Known as the "Brown Bomber," Joe Louis was a devastating boxer. Born in Alabama and raised in Detroit, he became one of the greatest fighters in history. His career saw him wearing the Heavyweight Championship Belt and defeating the German champion on the eve of World War II in a bout that was hailed as a refutation of Nazi Germany's racial attitudes. When he passed away in 1981, President Ronald Reagon waived the eligibility rules for Arlington National Cemetary and allowed him to be buried there.
Louisiana search for term
Admited to the United States as the 18th state on April 30, 1812, Louisiana later seceeded from the Union on January 26, 1861 and joined the Confederacy. The Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson, which declared that separate but equal facilities were equal, was decided based upon a Louisiana case, and the state maintained a series of "Jim Crow" laws for decades. The last of these laws was abolished in 1972, and today Louisiana is a growing economy of tourism and extensive natural resources.
Lusaka search for term
Founded in 1905, Lusaka is the capital and largest city (1997 est. pop. 1,209,000) of Zambia, Africa. Located in the central region of the country, Lusaka is both a productive farming community and a thriving commercial center. Its location at the junction of highways to Tanzania, Malawi, and Zimbabwe has made Lusaka a natural transportation hub for southern Africa.


MacArthur Foundation Fellowship search for term
Also known as the "Genius Award," these grants are presented to individuals who have displayed exceptional creativity, promise for important future advances based on a track record of significant accomplishment, and potential for the fellowship to facilitate subsequent creative work. The awards are given to individuals not in honor of past work but rather is an investment in a person's future work.
Maine search for term
Originally part of Massachusetts, Maine joined the Union in 1820, as the twenty-third state to enter the United States. Maine shares a lengthy border with Canada. Augusta is the capital.
Majority Whip search for term
Standard leadership role in a legislative body. The Majority Whip is a member of the majority party who coordinates the party’s legislative agenda and attempts to enforce the party line when bills come to the floor for a vote.
Malcolm X search for term
Considered to be one of the most fiery and outspoken individuals of the 20th century, Malcolm X was born in 1925. He was a charismatic leader of the Nation of Islam before being ousted from the group in 1964. He went on to found the Organization of Afro-American Unity and the Muslim Mosque, Inc. An advocate of black nationalism, many of his followers became disillusioned with his less extreme views that he developed. He was shot and killed at the Audobon Ballroom in Harlem by men identified as being members of the Nation of Islam on February 21, 1965.
Mandela, Nelson search for term
South African freedom fighter, activist and statesman. Nelson Mandela served as President of South Africa’s African National Congress, a civil rights organization that struggled to overthrow the racist system of apartheid. Later, after serving twenty-six years in prison, he would become the nation’s first democratically elected president. Mandela is recognized as one of the great freedom fighters and civil rights leaders of all time, and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
Marshall, Thurgood search for term
The first African American Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1908. After graduating with honors from Lincoln University and Howard University, he went on to become legal director for the NAACP. In 1967, he was appointed to the United States Supreme Court by President Lydon Johnson, where he remained until retiring in 1991. He passed away in 1993.
Martinique search for term
Colonized by France in 1635, this small island in the Caribbean has subsequently remained a French possession except for three brief periods of foreign occupation.
Maryland search for term
The seventh state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, Maryland was a large slaveholding state up to and during the Civil War, although it never left the Union. Baltimore, the largest city in the state, has a long and proud tradition of African Americans suceeding in all walks of life. Thurgood Marshall, a native of the city, went on to become the first African American to sit on the United States Supreme Court.
Massachusetts search for term
The sixth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, Massachusetts was home to the 54th Massachusetts Infantry. The 54th was one of the first divisions of African American troops formed, and the soldiers saw combat in the Civil War. In 1966, Massachusetts voters elected Edward W. Brooke III, the first black U.S. Senator elected in 85 years.
Mayfield, Curtis search for term
Singer, songwriter, and activist Curtis Mayfield was a central figure in the Soul and Rhythm & Blues genres of African American music. Mayfield gained prominence during the 1960s and 70s with socially conscious records, including “People Get Ready” and “I’m So Proud.” A two-time inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Mayfield received the honor in 1991 as a member of R&B group The Impressions and in 1999 as a solo performer. Curtis Mayfield died on December 26, 1999.
Mays Chemical Company search for term
Chemical supply company founded in 1980 by William Mays. The company has grown to include offices around the country, and offers a variety of products and services.
Mays, Willie search for term
One of the greatest, if not the greatest, players to ever play the game of baseball. In his twenty-two years with the Giants, the “Say Hey Kid” hit 660 home runs and 3,283 hits. A stunning combination of speed, power and smarts, Willie Mays played in 24 All Star games, and was voted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1979.
Medill School of Journalism search for term
Named for long-time Chicago Tribune editor Joe Medill, Northwestern’s graduate program is one of the most prestigious in the nation. Today it boasts alumni in the highest positions in both print and broadcast media.
Mexico search for term
The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations, Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century.
Michigan search for term
The twenty-sixth state to join the Union, Michigan enter the nation in 1837 as a free state. The largest city, Detroit, saw many race riots in the second half of the 20th century. John Conyers, Jr., one of the longest serving African Americans in Congress, hails from the state.
Million Man March search for term
Organized by Louis Farrakhan, this event brings together hundreds of thousands of African Americans on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. for a day of unity and a show of strength of character on October 16, 1995. Despite the name, women are present both in the crowd and on the podium, including civil rights pioneer Rosa Parks.
Minnesota search for term
Admitted to the Union in 1858, Minnesota became the thirty-second state to join the United States. The capital is St. Paul, which creates a large urban area with its twin city, Minneapolis.
Mississippi search for term
The twentieth state to join the Union, Mississippi was accepted in 1817. It joined the Confederacy in 1861, and after the Civil War was readmitted to the Union in 1870.
Missouri search for term
The twenty-fourth state, Missouri was admitted to the Union in 1821. In 1861, Missouri is admitted to the Confederacy, despite the fact that it had not formally seceded. The largest city, St. Louis, sits on the banks of the Mississippi River.
Monk, Thelonious search for term
Along with Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker, one of the innovators of bebop jazz. Born in North Carolina, Monk moved to New York to play piano in jazz clubs in Harlem and soon began recording and performing with his aforementioned peers.
Morgan, Garrett A. search for term
The inventor of the gas mask, Morgan can be credited with having saved countless lives. He himself donned one when a tunnel under Lake Erie collapsed and he rushed to the rescue of those trapped. The city of Cleveland, Ohio, awarded him with a gold medal for his actions and invention. Morgan also invented the first automatic traffic signal, as well as discovered and marketed the first hair straightening chemicals. He passed away in 1963.


National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences search for term
Television trade organization founded in 1957 to promote creative leadership in the television arts and sciences. The academy recognizes programming excellence with the Emmy Award. With its national headquarters in New York, the organization has 13 local chapters around the country.
National Aeronautical and Space Administration search for term
President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958, partially in response to the Soviet Union's launch of the first artificial satellite. NASA grew out of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA), which had been researching flight technology for more than 40 years. NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research.
National Air and Space Museum search for term
One of the twelve Smithsonian museums, it contains the largest collection of air and spacecraft in the world. Among its most famous artifacts are the original Wright brothers’ flyer, the “Sprit of St. Louis,” and the Apollo 11 command module. It is located in Washington, D.C.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People search for term
The nation’s largest civil rights organization, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909 following the Niagra Movement, W.E.B. DuBois and a group of concerned whites committed to social justice. The NAACP has been instrumental in exposing and removing political, social, educational, and economic barriers created by racial discrimination. Much of the organization’s success has occurred in the legal arena with cases such as Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. The 1954 Supreme Court decision followed a long effort by the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund to end school desegregation.
National Association of Black Journalists search for term
A trade organization for black journalists, founded in 1975. The National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) seeks to strengthen ties between black journalists and draw attention to African Americans concerns within the industry. The organization recognizes outstanding achievement in the field with numerous awards and oversees various educational recruitment programs.
National Association of Negro Musicians search for term
The National Association of Negro Musicians (NANM) was founded in Chicago in 1919. It is the oldest organization dedicated to the preservation, encouragement and advocacy of all genres of the music of African-Americans in the world. It has, likewise, sought to develop higher professional standards of all music through lectures, conferences and conventions. Since its inception, it has provided encouragement and support for thousands of African American musicians, many who have become widely respected figures in music and have contributed significantly to American music culture and history.
National Baseball Hall of Fame search for term
A museum honoring and recognizing baseball’s greatest, located in Cooperstown, New York, where Abner Doubleday is said to have invented the game. Players are eligible for the hall of fame in their sixth season of retirement, and are nominated and elected by the Baseball Writers of America Association. The Hall also serves as a national baseball archive, library and research center.
National Basketball Association search for term
Professional basketball league formed in the United States in 1949 by the merger of two rival organizations, the National Basketball League (founded 1937) and the Basketball Association of America (founded 1946)
National Black Caucus of State Legislators search for term
The primary mission of the National Black Caucus of State Legislators is to develop, conduct and promote educational, research and training programs designed to enhance the effectiveness of its members, as they consider legislation and issues of public policy which impact, either directly or indirectly upon “the general welfare” of African merican constituents within their respective jurisdictions.
National Black Programmers’ Coalition search for term
Formerly the Young Black Programmers Coalition (YBPC), the NBPC is a national trade organization comprised of leading professionals from the communications, radio, leisure and music industries. Formed in response to mainstream radio’s inability to serve the needs of African American communities, the NBPC is dedicated to the preservation of the legacy of Black Radio.
National Black Writers Conference search for term
Organized by novelist John Oliver Killens, the National Black Writers Conference (NBWC) began with one-day writers conferences held at Fisk University and Howard University in the 1960s. In addition to scholars, professional writers and literary critics, the NBWC invites the general public to participate in forums concerning issues and trends in African American literature. Keynote speakers have included Maya Angelou (1986), Gwendolyn Brooks (1988) and Amiri Baraka (1996).
National Collegiate Athletic Association search for term
A voluntary organization with over 1,200 member colleges and universities. It sets rules and policies for athletic recruitment, scholarship, and competition. It also organizes the annual NCAA college basketball tournament.
National Conference For Community and Justice search for term
A human relations organization founded in 1927 as the National Conference of Christians and Jews. Prompted by the growth of the KKK and other racist and xenophobic groups in the 1920’s, such luminaries as Jane Addams, Benjamin N. Cardozo, and future U. S. Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes came together to form an organization “dedicated to fighting bias, bigotry and racism in America.”
National Conference of State Legislators search for term
National bi-partisan organization founded in 1975. The organization serves as a resource for legislators nationwide, providing research, consulting services and seminars for its members.
National Endowment for the Arts search for term
An independent governmental agency established by Congress in 1965. The mission of the NEA is to “serve the public good by nurturing human creativity, supporting community spirit, and fostering appreciation of the excellence and diversity of our nation's artistic accomplishments.” The organization is the largest source of non-profit arts funding in the nation. It has financially supported such legends as Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie and Sarah Vaughan.
National Science Foundation search for term
The National Science Foundation funds research and education in science and engineering. It does this through grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements to more than 2,000 colleges, universities, and other research and/or education institutions in all parts of the United States. The Foundation accounts for about twenty percent of federal support to academic institutions for basic research.
National Urban League search for term
Founded in New York City in 1910, the National Urban League is the nation's oldest and largest community-based movement devoted to empowering African Americans to enter the economic and social mainstream. The organization works to improve education, help adults attain self-sufficiency and improve civil rights.
Negro Baseball League search for term
Until 1947, when Jackie Robinson made history with the Brooklyn Dodgers, African American baseball players were not allowed to play in the major leagues. During this half-century of racist segregation blacks played in the so-called Negro Leagues, where an entire sports universe flourished in the shadow of the all-white baseball leagues. Sports historians unanimously agree that the Negro Leagues featured talent on par with their major league counter parts. Today many of the stars of the Negro Leagues have become household names, such as Satchel Paige, Josh Gibson and Cool Papa Bell. At age 99, Ted “Double Duty” Radcliffe is the oldest living Negro League player.
Negro Newsfront search for term
First broadcast in 1948 by Chicago-born Oscar Brown Jr., the Negro Newsfront concerned itself with issues of particular relevance to the African American community. Aired in the city’s South Side Bronzeville neighborhood, the program gained significant popularity with “America’s largest majority” who were politically, socially and economically marginalized. The radio program featured stories often considered too progressive for station owners, and the Negro Newsfront was often kicked off the air.
New Hampshire search for term
The ninth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. Predominately an anti-slavery state, New Hampshire was a strong supporter of the North in the Civil War and was known as a progressive state during the Civil Rights Movement.
New Jersey search for term
New Jersey became the third state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. New Jersey was the last of the northern states to abolish slavery, doing so in 1804. Newark, the largest city in the state, is home to a large African American community.
New York City search for term
The largest city in the United States and one of the most famous centers for commerce and culture, the world over. Founded by the Dutch on land purchased from Native Americans, the city was originally named New Amsterdam. Conquered by the British in 1664, it was renamed New York. During the colonial period, New York was a major center of trade, and a hotbed of revolutionary activity during the Revolutionary War. It served as the nation’s first capitol before the federal government moved to Washington D.C. in 1800. In 1897, the Charter of Greater New York consolidated the five boroughs—Manhattan, Queens, Staten Island and The Bronx—into one city. New York was the great portal of immigration during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Millions of new Americans passed the Statue of Liberty and through Ellis Island on their way to becoming citizens. Nicknamed the “Big Apple” by jazz musicians in the thirties, it is home to the country’s major financial institutions and Wall Street. As of the 2000 Census, its population was 7,322,564.
New York City Mission Society search for term
Founded in 1812, the NYCMS was founded to provide hope to the masses of immigrants pouring into New York City in a time of rampant disease, poverty and overcrowding. Over the years, the Mission Society adapted to changing times, providing the first summer camp for African American children in the 1920s and began leadership training seminars in the 1950s. For almost 200 years, the NYCMS has been providing community service to citizens of New York and inspiring them.
New York State search for term
The eleventh state to ratify the Constitution, New York was originally a Dutch colony. Large portions of western New York remained uncolonized until the 1770s, when escaped slaves began moving through on their way to Canada. New York City, the largest city in the United States, serves as a bustling hub of commerce and culture, and has been home to many important African American movements.
Newton, Huey search for term
Revolutionary and co-founder of the Black Panther Party in 1966, Huey Newton was born in 1942 in Monroe, Louisiana. In 1967, Newton was charged with killing a police officer in Oakland, California. Following the overturning of his conviction in 1968, Newton later escaped less serious charges and fled to Cuba in 1973. After returning in 1977, Newton earned a Ph.D. in 1980. He was shot and killed in 1989.
Nigeria search for term
Officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, this West African country is located on the Gulf of Guinea. Nigeria is home to more than 250 ethnic groups, including the Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo peoples. Colonized by European traders in the 17th and 18th centuries, Nigeria was eventually claimed by the British, who consolidated the northern and southern sections into one colony in 1914. Since attaining independence in 1960, Nigeria has had several military and civilian governments. Lagos, the largest city was replaced by Abuja as the nation’s capital December 12, 1991.
Nixon, Richard search for term
The 37th President of the United States. Nixon served from 1969 until his resignation in 1974. His presidency saw the end of the Vietnam war and an easing of Cold War tensions.
North Carolina search for term
The twelfth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, North Carolina seceded from the Union on May 20, 1861. The state contributed more men and materials to the Civil War than any other in the Confederacy, and as a result was devestated by losses. In 1960, the sit-in movement was launched in Greensboro, North Carolina, and a few months later SNCC was formed at Shaw University.
Northern Migration search for term
A massive migration of African Americans from the rural South, to the urban North. At the beginning of this period, just after Reconstruction, 92\% of blacks lived in the southern half of the country. By the time the Northern Migration ended in 1970s, only a slight majority of the nation’s African Americans resided in the South. During this period of relocation, one of the most popular northern destinations was the City of Chicago. From 1920 to 1930 Chicago more than doubled its African American population, growing from 109,458 to 233,903.
N’Digo search for term
An African American weekly publication, based in Chicago and founded by Hermene Hartman. Described as a ‘magapaper,’ N’Digo provides coverage of issues of particular relevance to Chicago’s African American community. From an initial bi-monthly circulation of 50,000, N’Digo has grown to enjoy a weekly readership of over 500,000.


Ohio search for term
Joining the United States as the seventeenth state in 1803. During the protests of the Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War era, Ohio was the scene of many sit-ins and protests. In 1970, one of the most tragic events of the period occured when National Guard troops opened fire on protesters at Kent State University and four students were killed.
Oklahoma search for term
Oklahoma became the 46th state in 1907. African Americans came to the Oklahoma territories as cowboys and farmers, by the time statehood was granted, they outnumbered Native Americans and first- and second-generation Europeans in the territory. There were more all-black towns in Oklahoma than in the rest of the country put together.
Opera search for term
A musical genre featuring vocalists and an orchestra, an opera dramatizes a story or a libretto. As a drama set to music, it often uses themes from history or mythology. As a lyric form, often replete with lavish costumes and elaborate scenery, it consists of choruses, arias, duets and spoken recitation.
Operation Breadbasket search for term
An organization dedicated to improving economic conditions in the black community, Operation Breadbasket distributed food and nourishment in underserved communities in 12 American cities. The Rev. Willie Barrow, along with the Rev. Jesse Jackson, founded the organization in the 1962, and Jackson became national chairman of the organization in 1967. Jackson would later develop Operation P.U.S.H (People United to Serve Humanity) based on the model of Breadbasket.
Operation PUSH search for term
In an effort to strengthen economic security for African Americans, social activist Jesse Jackson founded Operation People United to Save Humanity (PUSH). The organization employed consumer boycotts and other strategies popularized during the Civil Rights Movement to press for minority employment and encourage the patronage of black-owned businesses. Operation PUSH has since expanded its focus to include issues important in the African American community, including education, AIDS and violence.
Owens, Jesse search for term
Born James Cleveland Owens in 1913, Jesse Owens would go on to become one of the greatest stars of track and field the world has ever seen. In 1935, he set three world records and tied a fourth, and the following year, he became the first person in Olympic history to win four gold medals in track and field. Despite these phenomenal achievements, due to the color of his skin he was often subjected to racism, and he was not offered endorsement deals, leaving him to race against people, animals and sometimes motorcycles to make money. Later, he became a well repsected public speaker and formed his own public relations firm. He passed away in 1980. Following his death, his widow Ruth and daughter Marlene Owens Rankin formed the Jesse Owens Foundation, and daughter Gloria Owens Hemphill is involved as well.


Parker, Charlie search for term
Influential saxophonist and composer who achieved his greatest fame in the 1940s. Charlie ‘Yardbird’ Parker was born in Kansas City, Missouri. He would later play in Kansas City, Chicago and New York, before starting his own band in 1945. His fast-paced, breathtaking improvisations won him national acclaim for bebop and he became an inspiration to generations of jazz musicians. After years of battling drug addiction, Parker died in 1955 at the age of 34.
Parks, Rosa search for term
Often referred to as the “mother of the Civil Rights Movement,” Rosa Parks is best known for refusing to give up her seat to a white male on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. Her actions sparked the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955 and led to the Supreme Court ruling which declared segregation on public buses unconstitutional. In 1999, Parks received the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian honor offered by the United States government. Presently, she works with the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development, which offers career and leadership guidance to young African Americans.
Peace Corps search for term
Tracing its roots back to a 1960 speech by John F. Kennedy at the University of Michigan, the Peace Corps has since sent 170,000 volunteers to over 100 countries to help in education, environmental technology and technological innovations, to name a few areas. The Peace Corps is devoted to helping people, and to bridging gaps between Americans and citizens of other cultures.
Pennsylvania search for term
Pennsylvania was the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. During the Revolutionary War, Philadelphia was a focal point of the resistance to the British, and it became a center for the abolitionsit cause, as well. Prior to the Civil War, Pennsylvania had fewer slaves than any other state. The two largest cities in the state are Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.
Philippines search for term
Located in the Pacific Ocean, the Phillipines were ceded by Spain to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. They attained independence in 1946 after Japanese occupation in World War II.
Poitier, Sidney search for term
Born on February 20, 1924 renowned actor and film director Sidney Poitier has used his craft to empower African Americans working in the entertainment industry. Poitier has challenged stereotypes throughout his career, choosing films that contested racial boundaries including “In the Heat of the Night” and “Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner?” Poitier was the first African-American to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor. He received an Oscar for his moving portrayal of Homer Smith in 1963s “Lilies of the Field”.
Porgy and Bess search for term
This timeless American opera was adapted from the novel “Porgy” by DuBose Heyward. Based on a newspaper account a disabled man’s escape from police after assaulting a woman, Heyward and his wife Dorothy first dramatized the novel in 1927. The play ran for 367 performances to enthusiastic audiences. Among those interested in the production was famed composer George Gershwin. After years of correspondence with the author, George and his brother Ira joined Heyward to collaborate on a folk opera based on the novel. The first cast included Todd Duncan, Anne Brown, John W. Bubbles and the Eva Jessye Choir. Years of successful touring inspired the 1959 motion picture version of the same name.
Powell, Adam Clayton search for term
Reverend Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., was the first African American politician to gain substantive power in the United States Congress. Born in 1908, Powell would go on to stage protests in the 1930s in Harlem, and in 1944 he was elected to the United States House of Representatives for the district of Harlem. Powell clashed with people on Capitol Hill, sometimes those in his own party, especially when he took black constituents to dine with him in the "whites only" dining room of the Capitol. He remained in Congress until 1970, surving expulsion in 1967 when the Supreme Court ruled that the House had acted illegally in preventing him from taking his seat. He lost a primary in 1970 to Charles Rangel, and Powell retired to Florida where he passed away two years later. Despite the scandal that surrounded the end of his career, Powell was instrumental in the passing of a number of important pieces of social legislation and was a tireless fighter for equality.
Procter & Gamble search for term
Multi-national corporation that manufactures health, beauty and baby care products as well as food and beverage. The company was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1837 as a small, family-operated soap and candle business.
Pryor, Richard search for term
Influential and controversial comedian. Known trailblazing and edgy material Pryor’s performances are some of the most celebrated of all time, and have won him five Grammy awards. His troubled personal life, numerous divorces and battles with drug addiction have served as material for his brutally honest comedy. He was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 1986, and in 1993 was honored with the Kennedy Center’s Mark Twain Prize.
Puerto Rico search for term
Populated for centuries by aboriginal peoples, the island was claimed by the Spanish Crown in 1493 following Columbus' second voyage to the Americas. In 1898, after 400 years of colonial rule that saw the indigenous population nearly exterminated and African slave labor introduced, Puerto Rico was ceded to the US as a result of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship in 1917 and popularly elected governors have served since 1948. In 1952, a constitution was enacted providing for internal self-government. In plebiscites held in 1967, 1993, and 1998 voters chose to retain commonwealth status.
Pulitzer Prize search for term
Named after Hungarian-born jounalist Joseph Pulitzer, the Prize is awarded for excellence in journalism. Since the inception of the award, it has expanded to include not only print journalism, but also photography, editorial cartoons, fiction, non-fiction, poetry and music.


Rainbow-PUSH Coalition search for term
Reverend Jesse L. Jackson united Operation PUSH and the National Rainbow Coalition into the Rainbow/PUSH Coalition (RPC) during the 1980s. A multicultural, international initiative, RPC works for social justice, challenging human rights abuses in the political, economic and social arenas. The coalition has been responsible for leading successful voter-registration drives, increasing business opportunities for minority groups, and affecting social policy in Haiti and South Africa.
Randolph, A. Philip search for term
Founder of the first African American labor union, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in 1925, Randolph went on to serve as a vice president of the newly merged AFL-CIO in 1955. After dissatisfaction over the AFL-CIO's inaction regarding discrimination in the workplace, Randolph founded the Negro American Labor Council in 1960. Randolph also led a march on Washington in 1963 and founded an institute to study the causes of poverty.
Ravinia Festival search for term
An international three month long performing arts festival, the Chicago-based Ravinia Festival is the summer home to the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. It also presents a diverse schedule of jazz, chamber music, dance, world music and children's shows in a pastoral, open air setting.
Reagan, Ronald search for term
The 40th President of the United States. Former actor turned president, Reagan served from 1981 to 1989. During that time, he was nearly assassinated. Under the Reagan administration, the nation rebounded from the stagnant economy of the 1970s. He also maintained a strong presence against Communist rebels around the globe.
Regal Theatre search for term
Famed entertainment venue on Chicago’s South Side. It once featured performances by such luminaries as Duke Ellington, Billie Holiday and Louis Armstrong. After falling into disrepair the theater has recently been remodeled and named the New Regal Theatre, under the direction of Edward Gardner.
Rhode Island search for term
The thirteenth state to ratify the Constitution, Rhode Island was founded by individuals who faced religious persecution in other colonies. Rhode Island is the smallest of the fifty States.
Rhythm & Blues search for term
Coined in 1947 by Billboard editor Jerry Wexler, the term rhythm and blues (R&B) refers to the sophisticated urban music that became popular, especially among African Americans, in the 1940s. Characterized by humorous lyrics and upbeat rhythms, R&B synthesized mainstream jazz styles with traditional blues forms.
Riperton, Minnie search for term
Born November 8, 1947, vocalist Minnie Riperton began her recording career with the Gems on Chess Studios. Although Riperton was classically trained, she was drawn to the expressive freedom of rock n roll. Her experimental style as lead vocalist for the progressive Rotary Connection caught the attention of music industry elites, and she began working as a backup vocal artist for Quincy Jones, Roberta Flack, Freddie Hubbard, and Etta James. Riperton’s career skyrocketed in the mid 1970s with the albums “Perfect Angel” and “Adventures in Paradise.” Diagnosed with breast cancer in 1976, Riperton began an aggressive awareness campaign. Her numerous appearances focused national attention on this life threatening disease. Riperton’s last album, simply titled “Minnie,” was recorded less than one year before her death in 1979. She was 32 years old.
Robeson, Paul search for term
Gifted stage actor, singer, political activist, Paul Robeson was born in Princeton, New Jersey April 9, 1898. Robeson’s deep bass and commanding stage presence impressed audiences worldwide. He received critical acclaim for performances in The Emperor Jones, Showboat, and Othello as well as for his renditions of black spirituals. By the early 1940s, Robeson’s activism on behalf of racial justice, social progress, and international peace caught the attention of the U.S. government. Political attacks against his progressive ideology culminated in his blacklisting during the McCarthy Era and the canceling of his passport. Robeson spent most of the next 13 years living in Russia and London, returning to the United States in 1963. Serious health problems ended his illustrious career and he died in 1976.
Robinson, Jackie search for term
The first African American baseball player to play in the Major Leagues since its official segregation at the beginning of the century, Jackie Robinson courageously braved verbal and physical assaults while playing second base for the Brooklyn Dodgers. After breaking baseball’s color barrier in 1946 he went on to a stellar career and paved the way for thousands of black athletes in professional sports. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.
Robinson, Smokey search for term
songwriter, and producer, born William Robinson, in Detroit, Michigan, USA. The lead singer with The Miracles (1959- -72), he also wrote and arranged for young artists on the Tamla Motown record label, and in 1961 became vice-president of the company. With the Miracles he had his first big US hit in "Shop Around' (1961). "Tears of a Clown' (1970) topped both the US and UK music charts, and became their most successful single. He left to pursue a solo career after a farewell tour in 1972. In 1991 he received the Heritage Award for outstanding career achievements in music and entertainment at the 5th annual Soul Train awards.
Roosevelt University search for term
An urban university friendly to Chicago’s black and ethnic communities. It was founded in 1945.
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano search for term
The 32nd President of the United States. Roosevelt is the longest serving president, having served from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Roosevelt, Theodore search for term
The twenty-sixth President of the United States. Serving two terms from 1901 to 1909, Roosevelt ensured the creation of the Panama Canal, won a Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating an end to the Russo-Japanese War and helped create the Nation Park System.
Ross, Diana search for term
Legendary R&B and Motown singer, Diana Ross got her start as the lead vocalist of the Motown sensation the Supremes, a group that sold more albums than any other American act during the 1960s. After a string of hits with the Supremes, Ross left the group in 1970 to pursue a solo career. As a soloist, she is one of the top-selling female vocalists of all time.
Roundabout Theatre Company search for term
Founded in 1965 by Gene Feist and his wife, actress Elizabeth Owens, the Roundabout Theatre Company is a non-profit subscription based theatre company in New York City that has put on many plays for over forty years. The theatre's productions have been nominated for more than seventy awards including Tony and Olivier Awards.


Seale, Bobby search for term
Bobby Seale was the chairman and co-founder of the Black Panther Party, an organization formed in 1966 to guard against police brutality in black neighborhoods and provide social services. Eventually the party developed into a militant revolutionary group with thousands of members in several major cities. In 1969, Seale, as one of the "Chicago Eight," was charged with conspiracy to incite riots during the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Charges against him were eventually dropped, but not before he had been bound and gagged to silence his courtroom outbursts. During 1970 and 1971 he was tried for the torture-murder of former Panther Alex Rackley, who was suspected of being a police informant. That trial ended in a hung jury, and afterward, Seale moderated his more militant views, leaving the Panthers altogether in 1974. He continues to remain active in seeking social justice.
Seattle Philharmonic Orchestra search for term
Established in 1944 and located on Puget Sound, the Seattle Philharmonic Orchestra is a community based non-profit organization committed to developing audiences for orchestral music. The Seattle Philharmonic is one of only 13 orchestras nationally that participates in the "New Residencies" program. The Seattle Philharmonic Orchestra strives to provide high quality concerts while encouraging young talent. It is also commited to promoting music from varied cultures.
Seaway National Bank search for term
A community-based full-service commercial bank located on Chicago’s South Side. Seaway National Bank was founded in 1965 to counter discriminatory lending practices by banks in the African American community. The founders of the bank sold shares of the enterprise door-to-door in order to raise the bank’s first $100,000. Today, Seaway National Bank is the nation’s largest African American-owned bank. Jacoby Dickens serves as the bank’s Chairman of the Board.
Segregated search for term
Restricting the movement of a specific population to certain designated areas or separate institutions and facilities on the basis of a set of characteristics. Segregation is designed to reinforce social hierarchies and support political and economic privileges of the dominant group. In the United States, racial segregation of African Americans was widely practiced up until the 1960s when the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed legal discrimination in public facilities.
Senegal search for term
The Republic of Senegal is located in West Africa. Archeological evidence, such as stone tools, suggests that the area has been inhabited for 15,000 years or more. During a period spanning the 8th, through the 11th, to the 14th century in what is now Senegal, several dominant regional empires were formed - the Ghanaian, the Tekrour and the Mali. Senegal's official language is French, although several other languages including Wolof, Jola, Pulaar and Mandinka are widely spoken. More than 90 \\% of the population is Moslem. Senegal, whose economy is primarily agricultural, has been a constitutional republic since 1963 with Dakar as its capital.
Sharecroppers search for term
Those who worked as paid farm labor shortly after the Civil War. Under the sharecropping system, a family rented a share of a large plantation owned by a landowner. In order to efficiently till the land, sharecroppers had to acquire tools, fertilizer and seeds. Often these were loaned by the same white landowners who demanded even larger portions of the harvest as repayment for the debt. Many sharecroppers fell deeper and deeper into debt, barely able to produce enough from the land to feed themselves and their families.
Showboat search for term
One of the masterpieces of the American musical theater. Written in the late 1920s by Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein, Showboat’s weighty subject matter and treatment of racial prejudice revolutionized the musical theater and popular theater in general. Revived countless times, Showboat has launched the career of many black actors, including Paul Robeson. “Showboat”’s most famous songs, “Old Man River” and “That Man of Mine,” remain central parts of the American cultural cannon.
Smithsonian Institution search for term
Independent public trust of the United States. The Smithsonian holds over 140 million artifacts and specimens relating to U.S. history and culture. Founded in 1846 with funds bequeathed to the United States by James Smithson, the Smithsonian has grown to include sixteen museums and galleries, a National Zoo as well as numerous research facilities around the world.
sociology search for term
The study or science of human society.
Soft Sheen Products search for term
Cosmetics company founded in 1964 by Ed Gardner. Soft Sheen manufactured and sold beauty products aimed at black men and women. Before it was bought by L’Oreal in 1998, it was the largest African American-owned beauty products company in the United States.
Solicitor General search for term
Federal government official charged with overseeing government cases brought before the Supreme Court. The Office of the Solicitor General is involved in approximately two-thirds of the cases argued before the U.S. Supreme Court.
Soul search for term
Soul signifies a return to black music's roots - gospel and blues. The genre incorporates vocal intensity and call-and-response techniques marked by an emotional delivery. Artists like Aretha Franklin and James Brown popularized soul in American culture during the 1970s. Soul continues to be an influential medium and has inspired contemporary musical styles such as funk and hip-hop.
South Africa search for term
Postcolonial independent nation located on Africa’s southern tip. Originally inhabited by Bantu-speaking tribes, what is today South Africa was conquered by the Dutch, and then the British, in the 17th and 18th centuries. By 1910, South Africa was an independent nation run entirely by descendants of Dutch and British colonizers. The white government created a segregated system of “apartheid” (‘apartness’) in which the nation’s black African majority was denied access to basic civil rights, and separated entirely from the politically and economically empowered white minority. After years of struggle and resistance the system of apartheid was overthrown in 1994, when the first democratic election was held. Nelson Mandela, a former political prisoner and civil rights activist, was elected president.
South Carolina search for term
The eighth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union on December 24, 1860. Troops from the South Carolina militia also led the first battle of the Civil War when they attacked Fort Sumpter. Following years of economic devastation as a result of the Civil War, the state finally began a recovery in the 1900s. With the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s came a relatively peaceful adjustment with the exception of the killing of three black protesters by state police in Orangeville. Since then, the state has sent numerous African Americans to office.
South Korea search for term
After World War II, a republic was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a Communist-style government was installed in the north. During the Korean War (1950-1953), US and other UN forces intervened to defend South Korea from North Korean attacks supported by the Chinese. An armistice was signed in 1953, splitting the Peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel.
South Side Community Arts Center search for term
Community space and art gallery, founded by Dr. Margaret Burroughs in 1941. Located on Chicago’s South Side, the center has presented over 450 art exhibits, including works by Gordon Parks and Richard Hunt. In 1982 the center received the prestigious Governor's Award for the Arts in Illinois.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference search for term
Founded in 1957 by Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the Southern Christian Leadership Conference coordinated with various African American organizations to fight for racial equality. Employing Dr. King’s nonviolent strategies, SCLC staged mass boycotts and sit-ins, organized voter-registration drives and sponsored citizen education programs. Most notably, SCLC played a key role in the 1963 March on Washington and in influencing the passage of major civil rights legislation during the mid-1960s. Reverend Ralph David Abernathy succeeded Dr. King as head of SCLC after King’s assassination in 1968. However, over the next decade SCLC’s political and social influence diminished greatly.
Southern Poverty Law Center search for term
A civil rights law firm founded in 1971, today the Center is one of the largest civil rights organizations in the country. Located in Montgomery, Alabama, SPLC seeks to promote tolerance education as well as monitor the activities of white supremacist groups.
Spain search for term
Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II, but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). In the second half of the 20th century, Spain has played a catch-up role in the western international community; it joined the EU in 1986.
Spelman College search for term
A private, historically black institution of higher learning for women located in Atlanta, Georgia. The school's history is traced to 1881, when two Boston women, Sophia Packard and Harriet Giles, began teaching 11 black women, mostly ex-slaves, in a church basement. Spelman offers degrees in more than 20 fields, including the arts, sciences, psychology, and computer science. Total enrollment is about 2,000.
Spike Lee search for term
Born Shelton Jackson Lee on March 20, 1957 in Atlanta, Georgia. Lee spent one year in Chicago, Illinois and then his family moved to Brooklyn, New York. Lee attended New York University Graduate Film School after attaining his bachelor's degree from Morehouse College. He won the student academy award for his short film, "Joe's Bed-Stuy Barbershop: We Cut Heads". In 1986, Lee made his first feature film, "She's Gotta Have It". It was one of the most profitable independent films made at that time. In 1989, Lee's screenplay for "Do The Right Thing" was nominated for Best Original Screenplay by the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences. Lee's other film credits include "School Daze", "Malcolm X", "Mo' Better Blues", "Jungle Fever", "Four Little Girls", "He Got Game" and "Inside Man". As a producer, writer and director, Lee is considered one of the most talented and controversial filmmakers working today.
Spingarn Medal search for term
Annual award given by the NAACP to an African American of outstanding merit and accomplishment. Past recipients include W.E.B. DuBois, A. Philip Randolph, Dr. Martin Luther King, Oprah Winfrey and Earl Graves, Sr.
State Comptroller search for term
A state’s chief fiscal officer, the responsibilities normally include auditing of government fiscal records, managing retirement funds of state employees, and overseeing the fiscal activities of local governments.
State Department search for term
Officially The Department of State, this division of the executive branch is responsible for U.S. diplomacy. The Secretary of State is one of the highest profile cabinet positions. Such notables as Charles Evans Hughes, John Foster Dulles and Colin Powell have occupied this position.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) search for term
One of the key civil rights organizations of the early 1960s, “Snick,” as the organization was known, was committed to direct action, civil disobedience and voter registration of disenfranchised African Americans. Founded by Southern college students in 1960, the organization helped to organized sit-ins in segregated businesses (such as Woolworths) and massive voter-registration drives throughout the rural South. The group also organized the famous “Freedom Rides” in 1961, in which SNCC members rode through the South, integrating interstate travel while braving violence and abuse from the segregationist opposition.
Studio Museum in Harlem search for term
A museum of visual art, dedicated to exhibiting work by African Americans. Since its founding in a Harlem loft in 1967, the Studio Museum has grown and recently announced plans for a major renovation and expansion. The museum is currently located on W. 125th Street, in the heart of Harlem, New York.
Sweden search for term
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment, rising maintenance costs, and a declining position in world markets. Indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe delayed Sweden's entry into the EU until 1995, and waived the introduction of the euro in 1999.
Switzerland search for term
Switzerland's independence and neutrality have long been honored by the major European powers, and Switzerland was not involved in either of the two World Wars. The political and economic integration of Europe over the past half century, as well as Switzerland's role in many UN and international organizations, has strengthened Switzerland's ties with its neighbors. However, the country did not officially become a UN member until 2002. Switzerland remains active in many UN and international organizations, but retains a strong commitment to neutrality.
Symbionese Liberation Army search for term
The Symbionese Liberation Army was an American paramilitary group with a radical ideology. They committed two murders, bank robberies, and other acts of violence between 1973 and 1975. Even though they never had more than 13 members, they became the top ongoing media story during their underground fugitive period. They are famous for kidnapping wealthy media heiress Patty Hearst, granddaughter of William Randolph Hearst, in 1974 and allegedly brainwashing and convincing her to join the group and take part in their illegal activities, including bank robberies.


Taft, William search for term
The 27th President of the United States. Taft served from 1909 to 1913, and is the only president to both serve as the Chief Executive and as a Justice of the Supreme Court.
Tanzania search for term
Shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.
Taylor, Zachary search for term
The twelfth United States President, Zachary Taylor served from 1849 to 1850. He became the second president to die in office, after becoming sick from eating a bowl of cherries at a 4th of July celebration.
Tennessee search for term
The sixteenth state to be admitted to the United States, Tennessee seceded from the Union on June 8, 1861. Decades of lynchings, racism and segregation culminate with the Civil Rights Movement bringing these institutions to an end, and on April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated in Memphis.
Texas search for term
The second largest state in the United States, Texas entered the Union as a slave state in 1846. With the outbreak of the Civil War, Texas joined the Confederacy in 1861. Following Reconstruction, Texas was readmitted to the Union in 1870. President George W. Bush hails from the state, having formerly been the governor.
The Amistad search for term
Famous slave ship on which the would-be slaves revolted and took control of the ship under the leadership of Joseph Cinque. The ship was sighted off Long Island, and was towed to Connecticut. Former United States President John Quincy Adams defended their case for freedom before the Supreme Court, and their case was won in 1841.
The Art Institute of Chicago search for term
World-renowned Chicago art museum, founded in 1866 by a group of local artists. Originally called the Chicago Academy of Design, the Institute’s collection has grown to become one of the finest in the world. Today, the Art Institute is housed in a majestic complex on Chicago’s Michigan Avenue.
The Habitat Company search for term
Founded in 1971, The Habitat Company is one of the largest private residential property managers in Chicago and the Midwestern United States with over 28,000 units under its management. Some of its residential properties include Chicago's Elm Street Plaza and Riverfront Towers.
The Impressions search for term
Chicago R&B group of the 1960s. Under the management of Eddie Thomas, the Impressions became a chart-sensation with the 1958 release of their record “For Your Precious Love.” The record sold more than 150,000 copies during its first two weeks. In 1970, one the band’s prime creative force, singer/songwriter Curtis Mayfield, left the group to pursue a successful solo career.
The School of the Art Institute search for term
The educational wing of the famed Art Institute of Chicago. The school has been an integral part of the Art Institute since it’s founding in 1866. It has trained some of country’s most talented visual artists, including Richard Hunt and Dr. Margaret Burroughs.
The Temptations search for term
Unoffically titled “The Emperors of Soul,” The Temptations set standards for smooth vocals and stylistic choreography while recording for Motown Records. Romantic singles, which included "The Way You Do the Things You Do" (1964), "My Girl" (1964), and "Get Ready" (1966), made The Temptations one of the most popular soul music performers during the 1960s and 1970s. In 1989, their contributions were recognized by the musical industry and The Temptations were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
Trinidad search for term
One of two islands that comprise the nation of Trinidad and Tobago. The islands came under British control in the 19th century, and independence was granted in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean, thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing.
Truman, Harry S. search for term
The 33rd President of the United States. Truman served from 1945 until 1953. Truman proposed a full employment act, the Fair Employment Practices Act and an expansion of Social Security among other initiatives.
Tuskegee Airmen search for term
The first all-African American flying unit and their training and commanding officers in the U.S. military, Tuskegee Airmen served during World War II. The squadron was commissioned by the War Department under increased pressure from the NAACP and other organizations seeking to provide opportunities for African Americans in the armed forces. Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. commanded the Tuskegee Airmen’s first graduating class. They flew over fifteen hundred missions and destroyed hundreds of enemy aircrafts without ever losing a bomber to hostile fire.
Tuskegee Institute search for term
The Tuskegee Negro Normal Institute opened its doors on July 4, 1881 with Booker T. Washington presiding as principal. Later, George Washington Carver would join the faculty and help revolutionize agriculture in the South.
Tuskegee Syphilis Study search for term
A medical research project conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service and the Tuskegee Institute noted for the unethical treatment of African American male patients. Research subjects were not informed they had syphilis and remained untreated so that scientists could study the long-term affects of the disease. The study violated U.S. governmental legislation that mandated the treatment of all sexually transmitted diseases. It is estimated that 100 men died during this 40-year experiment which lasted until an investigative journalist uncovered the story in 1972.
Tutu, Desmond search for term
Born in Klerksdorp, Transvaal, in 1931, Desmond Tutu graduated from the University of South Africa and later studied theology in England. In 1975 he was appointed Dean of St. Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg, the first black to hold that position. From 1976 to 1978 he was Bishop of Lesotho, and in 1978 became the first black General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches. Desmond Tutu has formulated his objective as "a democratic and just society without racial divisions." He was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his work to end apartheid.


United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America search for term
Industrial labor union founded in 1881 by P.J. McGuire. Through much of its history, the UBC has been at the forefront of opening labor’s doors to all workers regardless of gender, race or sexual orientation. Former Congressman Charles Hayes was an organizer for the organization in the early years of his career.
United Kingdom search for term
Great Britain, the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century, played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. At its zenith, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted in two World Wars. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, a founding member of NATO, and of the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy; it currently is weighing the degree of its integration with continental Europe.
United Negro College Fund search for term
An educational assistance organization founded in 1944, with the goal of increasing access to higher education for African Americans. Through its various programs the UNCF provides tuition assistance to promising African American students, raises money and operating funds for member schools, and supports increased access to technological resources in the nation’s historically black colleges and universities.
United States House of Representatives search for term
Lower house of the United States Congress, along with the Senate, it constitutes the Legislative branch of the federal government. Each member of the House represents the residents within a legislative district, a piece of land that is redrawn periodically to reflect demographic changes identified by the census. The House, like the Senate is divided into committees that are responsible for considering and drafting legislation pertaining to different areas of governance. House members are elected to two-year terms and there is no term limit. There are currently 435 members of the United States House of Representatives.
United States Senate search for term
The upper house of the United States Congress. Along with the 435-member House of Representatives, the 100-member Senate comprises the legislative branch of the federal government. The bicameral system emerged as a compromise between large and small states during the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Whereas in the House of Representatives, states receive proportional representation according to their respective populations, in the Senate each state has two senators, putting large and small states on equal footing. The rules of procedure in the Senate differ substantially from those in the House. Most importantly, each member in the Senate has the power to filibuster; an unrestricted stretch of speaking time used to block legislation. Aside from the drafting of legislation, the U.S. Senate is responsible for ratifying foreign treaties and confirming presidential nominees. Until 1913 U.S. Senators were most often elected by state legislatures. However, the 17th Amendment mandated that U.S. Senators be elected by direct popular vote.
United States Supreme Court search for term
The judicial branch of the U.S. government, the U.S. Supreme Court is the highest court of appeals and has the power to overturn any court ruling in the country. The court has nine justices who are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. Once approved, the justices serve for life. Over the last two centuries the U.S. Supreme Court has played a crucial role in the struggle for civil rights. With the Plessy v. Ferguson decision in 1896, the court officially sanctified racial segregation, stipulating that it was constitutional so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were “equal.” In 1954, in the historic Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, the court reversed this ruling, officially ending Jim Crow and institutionalized racial segregation.
University of California Los Angeles search for term
Public university located in Los Angeles California. Since its founding in 1919, the University of California, Los Angeles has grown to become a world-renowned research institution. Famous alumni include Jackie Robinson, Arthur Ashe and Jackie Joyner-Kersee. Today, the University serves more than 36,500 students.
University of Chicago search for term
Perhaps the more prestigious academic institution in the Midwest, the University of Chicago was founded in 1892 by John D. Rockefeller in the Hyde Park neighborhood on Chicago’s south side. Today the University boasts hundreds of well-known alums, including Jewel Lafontant MANkarious, Katherine Dunham, Saul Bellow and Phillip Glass. It is home to numerous cultural archives, museums and collections.
Urban Bush Women search for term
A Brooklyn, New York based dance company and performance ensemble whose founding artistic director is Jawole Willa Jo Zollar. The company celebrated its twentieth anniversary in 2004-2005. The company produces performances based on women's experiences and African American history and culture. The ensemble's mission is to bring the untold and under-told histories and stories of disenfranchised people to light through dance.
Urban School Improvement Act search for term
Illinois state legislation sponsored by Carol Moseley-Braun in 1985. The bill empowered parents’ councils in every school in the state of Illinois.
Uruguay search for term
Bordered by Brazil and Argentina on the South Atlantic Ocean, Uruguay witnessed violent revolution in the late 1960s and early 1970s, with military control established in 1973. Civilian authority over the government was reestablished in 1985, and today political conditions are some of the freest in South America. The capital, Montevideo, is the largest city.


Vee-Jay Records search for term
Record company founded in 1953 by Vivian Carter and James C Bracken. Over its forty year career the record label has seen numerous peaks and valleys. In the early 1960s it was one of the most successful record labels in the nation, and the first U.S. label to distribute the Beatles. After two years of success it went out of business. It wouldn’t be the first time. During the next thirty years the label went out of business and was revived twice more. Prior to Motown, Vee-Jay was the most successful African American-owned record label in the country.
Vermont search for term
The fourteenth state to ratify the Constitution, Vermont is also the first addition to the original thirteen colonies. A progressive state, Vermont is the first state to abolish slavery, the first African American to earn a college degree in the United States does so in Vermont in 1823 and Martin Henry Freeman becomes the first black college president in 1856.
Vietnam Peace Treaty search for term
A treaty signed by the U.S. and North Vietnam in Paris, 1973 ending the Vietnam War. U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese negotiator Le Duc Tho were awarded the 1973 Noble Peace Prize for their effort to bring the war to a close.
Vietnam War search for term
Armed conflict in the Southeast Asian nation of Vietnam that embroiled the U.S. from the beginning of the 1950s through the next two and half decades. The U.S.’s stated military objective in Vietnam was to ‘contain’ the spread of Communism by protecting non-Communist South Vietnam from Communist North Vietnam. As U.S. military commitment in the area increased, so, too, did protests and tensions at home. These war protests were the lynchpin of the infamous 1960s ‘counter culture’, and catalyzed dissent and protest in other political and social realms. After 25 years and over 50,000 American casualties (as well as millions of Vietnamese casualties), President Nixon, under pressure from the overwhelming majority of the electorate, ordered U.S. troops to withdraw. After the American withdrawal, North and South Vietnam were united under a socialist regime.
Virginia search for term
Virginia was the tenth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, Virginia seceded from the Union on May 23, 1861. After decades of racism, including resistance to the Brown v. Board of Education decision when first announced, Virginia became the first state to elect a black Governor in 1989 with the election of L. Douglas Wilder.


Washington D.C. search for term
Since 1800, the capital of the United States, and home to the White House, Congress and Supreme Court. Located on the Virginia/Maryland border on the banks of the Potomac River, the District of Columbia is a municipality under the direct administrative authority of the federal government, not a state. As of the 2000 Census the city’s population was 572,059.
Washington, Booker T. search for term
Famed black educator, author and spokesperson, Washington was born into a slave family in rural Virginia. After emancipation he received a secondary education in West Virginia, where he worked in the coalmines. In 1881, he founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama. The school became a model for the industrial education of African Americans. Washington’s accommodationist approach made him popular with white philanthropists and the Tuskegee school became a cause celebre among many of the nation’s Northern white elite. Washington’s autobiography “Up From Slavery” (1901), was widely read, and Washington served as an advisor to Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft. His approach to African American progress, which focused on economic empowerment over social inclusion, was criticized by many civil rights activists of the time. Recently, however, his focus on economic self-sufficiency has been revived as an important model for black progress.
Washington, Harold search for term
Late mayor Harold Washington was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1922. A natural leader, Washington was a decorated Army veteran of the 1887th Engineer Aviation Battalion in World War II and later served as a member of the Illinois State Legislature (1966-1976), the Illinois State Senate (1978-1980), and the US House of Representatives (1981-1983). In 1984, he achieved his greatest victory as the first African American to be elected as Mayor of the City of Chicago. Washington is noted for building a progressive, interracial coalition and his administration introduced many measures that advocated the social and economic rights of minorities. He was reelected in 1987, but died before he beginning his second term.
Watts search for term
South Central Los Angeles neighborhood notorious for its civil unrest and rioting in 1965. The economically disadvantaged community has witnessed high unemployment figures and gang violence for the past several decades.
WBEE Radio search for term
Chicago-area jazz station
West Indies search for term
Region that includes all of the islands which extend through the Caribbean Sea from the tip of the Florida Peninsula to the northern coast of South America. They include 23 political entities, some of them quite small and relatively unknown to the outside world. The West Indies derives its coherence and distinctiveness from a combination of four factors, one geographic, the other three historical. The geographic feature is insularity, and the three historical themes are colonialism, the sugar plantation, and slavery. Most of the islands are smaller than Barbados
West Virginia search for term
The thirty-fifth state to join the Union, West Virginia became a state on June 20, 1863, at the height of the Civil War. John Brown's famous 1859 raid on Harper's Ferry took place in land that would soon become part of this state.
Westside Preparatory School search for term
Renowned educator Marva Collins established the Westside Preparatory School in 1975. An alternative educational institution for African American children located on Chicago's Westside, the school stresses basics such as phonics, memorization, critical thinking and discipline. Materials ranging from the classics to modern thought are an integral part of the curriculum.
WGES Radio search for term
Prominent Chicago AM radio station of 1940s and 1950s. It was one of the first radio stations to prominently feature black DJ’s, including pioneer Al Benson and Herb Kent.
WGN Radio search for term
Radio station owned by the Chicago Tribune newspaper, its letters stand for “World’s Greatest Newspaper”, the slogan of the Chicago daily. Since its founding in 1924, WGN has become one of the most storied radio stations in the nation, broadcasting the beloved Cubs to millions of loyal listeners throughout the Midwest.
White, Barry search for term
Known as "The Love Man," Barry White created numerous hit soul and disco songs. Born in Texas but moving to the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, White joined a gang, but later discovered his own singing talents. His hits included "I'm Gonna Love You Just a Little More Baby" (1973), "Never, Never Gonna Give You Up" (1973), "Can't Get Enough of Your Love, Babe" (1974). His songs continue to be aired, and are often used in television and radio ads. Barry White passed away in 2003.
White, Charles search for term
Black muralist and painter of the 1930s, 40s and 50s. He taught at The Chicago Community Arts Center in the 1930s before receiving a scholarship to the School of the Art Institute. He went on to become a muralist for the W.P.A., and in 1949, after moving to New York, founded the Committee for the Negro in Arts in New York.
Whitney Museum of American Art search for term
Internationally recognized museum of modern American art, located in New York City. The museum was founded in 1931, with 70 objects from the private collection of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. Since its inception, the museum has focused on the acquisition of work by living American artists. Today, it boasts a collection of over 12,000 works.
Williams, Chancellor search for term
Born December 22, 1898 in Bennetsville, South Carolina, Dr. Chancellor Williams was a gifted scholar who traveled throughout Africa documenting ancient history. He offered an interpretation of African history that contested European American knowledge claims about the “Cradle of Civilization.” Throughout his career, Dr. Chancellor published numerous essays and books, including "The Raven," "The Rebirth of African Civilization" and "The Destruction of Black Civilization" - a comprehensive history of the African Diaspora. He died in 1992.
Williams, Daniel Hale search for term
Surgeon at Chicago's Provident Hospital who performed the first successful open heart surgery on a patient in 1893. Williams' patient, John Cornish, lived for another twenty years. Williams established Provident Hospital in 1891 as a means of training African American doctors and nurses. Provident was one of a handful of interracial hospitals of the time, and the patient recovery rate, at eighty-seven percent, was remarkable for the time. Williams later helped found the National Medical Association after being denied admittance to the American Medical Association. He passed away in 1931.
Wilson, Nancy search for term
Jazz singer and performer. In the last half-century she has released over fifty recordings, performed with nearly every jazz great, and currently hosts a jazz radio show on National Public Radio. Her best-known song is “Guess Who I Saw Today.”
Wisconsin search for term
Famous for its cheese, Wisconsin was admitted to the Union in 1848 as the 30th state. Though the capital is Madison, the largest city is Milwaukee, on the shores of Lake Michigan.
WKRS-FM (KISS-FM) search for term
Broadcasting from New York City, KISS-FM is one of the nation’s largest and most successful urban radio stations. Radio executive Barry Mayo served as both Vice President and General Manager of the station in the late 1980s.
WLS-TV search for term
Chicago’s local ABC affiliate, the station is home to Bob Petty, Bill Campbell and Diann Burns.
Woodson, Carter G. search for term
One of the founders of black studies within the classroom, Woodson was born in Virginia in 1875. He would go on to work in coal mines before graduating high school at the age of twenty-two. In 1915 he founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, and in 1926 established Negro History Week, which would evolve into Black History Month. Woodson went on to teach and serve in administrative roles at a number of universities as well as write extensively. He passed away in 1950.
World War II search for term
Also called the “Second World War”, a global armed conflict that ensnared countries on every inhabited continent. Prompted by the aggressive conquests of Nazi German dictator Adolf Hitler in Europe, and a surprise attack on an American naval ship in Pearl Harbor by Japanese fighter planes, the war pitted the Allies—U.S., U.S.SR and England—against the Axis Powers—Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan. From 1939 to 1945 the war resulted in 40-50 million casualties, making it the bloodiest conflict in history. Six million of these deaths were Jewish civilians ruthlessly exterminated in the Holocaust by Hitler’s Nazi regime. In 1945, American President Harry Truman ordered the atom bomb to be dropped on the Japanese islands of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This would represent the only wartime deployment of nuclear weapons in history. The bombings resulted in the death of nearly 200,000 civilians and Japan’s unconditional surrender in 1945. After a long and bitter struggle, the Allies emerged victorious.
Wright, Richard search for term
One of America’s greatest black writers, Richard Wright was also among the first African American writers to achieve literary fame and fortune. He was born and spent the first years of his life on a plantation, not far from the affluent city of Natchez on the Mississippi River, but his life as the son of an illiterate sharecropper was far from affluent. Though he spent only a few years of his life in Mississippi, those years would play a key role in his two most important works: Native Son, a novel, and his autobiography, Black Boy. Wright was a figure of controversy, being a member of the Communist party for many years, eventually moving to Paris to join the Existentialist movement blossiming there with such writers as Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre. He passed away in 1960.
WVON search for term
For 35 years, WVON radio (Voice of the Nation) has been an institution in Chicago’s African American community. Today, it is Chicago’s only black-owned talk radio station. Over the years, the station has featured such Chicago personalities as Herb Kent and Wesley South.


Zambia search for term
Officially Republic of Zambia(1994 est. pop. 9,188,000) Major cities include LUSAKA (the capital), KITWE, and NDOLA. Zambia is on a highland plateau, which rises in the east. Zambia's economy is dependent almost entirely on its mineral wealth, notably copper, of which it is one of the world's leading producers, and cobalt. Much of the population is engaged in subsistence farming, however, growing corn and other grains, beans, peanuts, and tobacco and raising cattle are customary. About 98\% of the inhabitants are members of Bantu-speaking ethnic groups, but English is the official language.